Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128029374, 9780128029527

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

1st Edition

Volume 8- Human Diseases

Editors: M. Hayat
eBook ISBN: 9780128029527
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128029374
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 14th January 2016
Page Count: 418
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Description

Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and forward-thinking, these books offer a valuable guide to both cellular processes while inciting researchers to explore their potentially important connections.
Volume 8 Autophagy and Human Diseases, concentrates on the role of Autophagy in human diseases, including tumorigenesis. The diseases discussed include melanoma, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Loss of autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration (Alzheimers disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkin’s disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis). Melanoma is one of the most serious diseases in humans. Autophagy plays a key role in the anticancer response to Chemotherapy. However, autophagy can increase or decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The reasons for these contradictory effects are explained. Autophagy also plays a role in idiopathic inflammatory diseases, infection, and immunity. An explanation is given how autophagy is closely linked to control of innate and adaptive immune responses in host defense in part by regulating cytokine production. The role of autophagy in cutaneous malignant melanoma is discussed in detail and expression of Beclin 1 and LC3 autophagic genes in melanoma is included to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying this very serious disease, which tends to metastasize to the brain. The effect of the treatment of this disease using Terfenadine through the induction of autophagy and apoptosis is also included. Autophagy and apoptosis are two main mechanisms involved in programmed cell death.

Considering that autophagy is associated with numerous biological processes including cellular development and differentiation, cancer (both antitumor and protumor functions), immunity, infectious diseases, inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, response to cellular stress, and degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson's, Huntington's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases, there is a great need to understanding its role. Cell homeostasis is achieved by balancing biosynthesis and cellular turnover. In spite of the increasing importance of autophagy in various pathophysiological situations (conditions) mentioned above, this process remains underestimated and overlooked. As a consequence, its role in the initiation, stability, maintenance, and progression of these and other diseases (e.g., autoimmune disease) remains poorly understood.


Volumes in the Series

Volume 1: Molecular Mechanisms. Elucidates autophagy’s association with numerous biological processes, including cellular development and differentiation, cancer, immunity, infectious diseases, inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, response to cellular stress, and degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson's, Huntington's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases.
Volume 2: Role in General Diseases. Describes the various aspects of the complex process of autophagy in a myriad of devastating human diseases, expanding from a discussion of essential autophagic functions into the role of autophagy in proteins, pathogens, immunity, and general diseases. 
Volume 3: Role in Specific Diseases. Explores the role of autophagy in specific diseases and developments, including: Crohn’s Disease, Gaucher Disease, Huntington’s Disease, HCV infection, osteoarthritis, and liver injury, with a full section devoted to in-depth exploration of autophagy in tumor development and cancer, as well as the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis.
Volume 4: Mitophagy. Presents detailed information on the role of mitophagy, the selective autophagy of mitochondria, in health and disease, by delivering an in-depth treatment of the molecular mechanisms involved in mitophagy initiation and execution, as well as the role of mitophagy in Parkinson Disease, cardiac aging, and skeletal muscle atrophy.
Volume 5: Role in Human Diseases. Comprehensively describes the role of autophagy in human diseases, delivering coverage of the antitumor and protumor roles of autophagy; the therapeutic inhibition of autophagy in cancer; and the duality of autophagy’s effects in various cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders.
Volume 6: Regulation of Autophagy and Selective Autophagy. Provides coverage of the mechanisms of regulation of autophagy; intracellular pathogen use of the autophagy mechanism; the role of autophagy in host immunity; and selective autophagy.
Volume 7: Role of Autophagy in Therapeutic Applications. Provides coverage of the latest developments in autophagosome biogenesis and regulation; the role of autophagy in protein quality control; the role of autophagy in apoptosis; autophagy in the cardiovascular system; and the relationships between autophagy and lifestyle. 
Volume 8: Autophagy and Human Diseases. Reviews recent advancements in the molecular mechanisms underlying a large number of genetic and epigenetic diseases and abnormalities, and introduces new, more effective therapeutic strategies, in the development of targeted drugs and programmed cell death, providing information that will aid on preventing detrimental inflammation.
Volume 9: Human Diseases and Autophagosome. Emphasizes the role of Autophagy in necrosis and inflammation, explaining in detail the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the formation of autophagosomes, including the progression of Omegasomes to autophagosomes.

Key Features

  • Presents the most advanced information regarding the role of the autophagic system in life and death and whether autophagy acts fundamentally as a cell survivor, or cell death pathway, or both
  • Introduces new, more effective therapeutic strategies, in the development of targeted drugs and programmed cell death, providing information that will aid on preventing detrimental inflammation
  • States recent advancements in the molecular mechanisms underlying a large number of genetic and epigenetic diseases and abnormalities

Readership

Academic/clinical professors, postdoctoral fellows, graduate and medical students in immunology, microbiology, pathology, infectious diseases and cancer research

Table of Contents

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  • Dedication
  • Mitophagy and Biogenesis
  • Dedication
  • Autophagy and Cancer
  • Some Thoughts on Autophagy and Immunity
  • Autophagy: Friend or Foe?
  • Autophagy: If and When
  • What Happened When Autophagy Didn’t
  • Sugar Isn’t Always Sweet
  • Mitochondrial Mysteries
  • The Autophagy Process
  • Foreword
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Autophagy: Volume 1 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 2 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 3 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 4 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 5 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 6 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 7 – Contributions
  • Chapter 1. Overview of Autophagy
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Specific Functions of Autophagy (A Summary)
    • Autophagy in Normal Mammalian Cells
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
    • Major Types of Autophagies
    • Autophagosome Formation
    • Autophagic Lysosome Reformation
    • Protein Synthesis
    • Abnormal Proteins
    • Molecular Chaperones
    • The Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Autophagic Proteins
    • Aggrephagy
    • Aggresome, Ubiquitin Proteasome, and Autophagic Systems
    • Monitoring Autophagy
    • Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
    • Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)
    • Role of Autophagy in Tumorigenesis and Cancer
    • Role of Autophagy in Immunity
    • Autophagy and Senescence
    • Role of Autophagy in Viral Defense and Replication
    • Role of Autophagy in Intracellular Bacterial Infection
    • Role of Autophagy in Heart Disease
    • Role of Autophagy in Neurodegenerative Diseases
    • Cross-Talk between Autophagy and Apoptosis
    • Autophagy and Ubiquitination
    • Autophagy and Necroptosis
    • Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission
    • Selective Autophagy
    • References
  • Part I: Molecular Mechanisms
    • Chapter 2. Role of the Beclin 1 Network in the Cross-Regulation Between Autophagy and Apoptosis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Beclin 1 Structure in Autophagy
      • Transcriptional Regulation of Beclin 1 in Autophagy
      • Posttranslational Modification of Beclin 1 in Autophagy
      • Beclin 1-PI3KC3 Core Complex in Autophagy
      • Beclin 1-BCL-2 Complex in Autophagy
      • Beclin 1-Binding Proteins in Autophagy
      • Beclin 1-Mediated Interplay Between Apoptosis and Autophagy
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Role of Sirt1 as a Regulator of Autophagy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics of Sirt1
      • Autophagy
      • Regulation of Autophagy
      • Role of Sirt1 as a Regulator of Autophagy
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Apoptosis Blocks Beclin 1-Dependent Autophagosome Synthesis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Apoptosis Inhibits Autophagosome Biogenesis via Dual-Functional Proteins
      • Apoptosis Inhibition of Autophagosome Formation by Protease Activity
      • Discussion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Is Selective Autophagy Distinct from Starvation-Induced Autophagy?
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Autophagy
      • Selective Autophagy
      • Autophagy and Disease
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Part II: Role in Cell Death and Disease
    • Chapter 6. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Cell Death Caused by Cationic Polymers
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics of Cationic Polymers
      • Brief Overview of Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Death
      • Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Death Caused by Cationic Polymers
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 7. The Role of Autophagy in Cell Death
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cell Death Subroutines
      • Autophagy and Apoptosis
      • Autophagy and Programmed Necrosis
      • Autophagy and ACD
      • Autophagy: A Complex Dynamical System
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 8. The Role of Autophagy and Mitophagy in Mitochondrial Diseases
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Mitochondrial Diseases
      • Autophagy
      • Mitophagy
      • Mitophagy in Mitochondrial Diseases
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Autophagy Regulation by HMGB1 in Disease
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Nuclear HMGB1-Mediated Autophagy
      • Cytosolic HMGB1-Mediated Autophagy
      • Extracellular HMGB1-Mediated Autophagy
      • Transcriptional Regulation of HMGB1 in Autophagy
      • Posttranslational Modification of HMGB1 in Autophagy
      • HMGB1-Mediated Autophagy in Cancer Therapy
      • HMGB1-Mediated Autophagy in Inflammation
      • HMGB1-Mediated Autophagy in Immunity
      • HMGB1-Mediated Autophagy in the Central Nervous System
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Autophagy Defects and Lafora Disease
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pathomechanisms of Lafora Disease
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Regulation of Autophagy in Parkinson’s Disease: Insights into New Therapeutic Targets
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Autophagy in PD
      • Autophagy as a Therapeutic Strategy
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Part III: Role in Cancer
    • Chapter 12. Role of Autophagy in Cancer Development via Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Mitochondria and mitoROS
      • Relationship Between mitoROS and Autophagy
      • mitoROS-Regulated Autophagic Pathway in Cancer
      • Antitumor Drugs Targeting mitoROS-Related Autophagy
      • Conclusions and Perspectives
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Role of Autophagy in Cancer Therapy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Dual Role of Autophagy in Cancer
      • Therapy-Induced Stress and Autophagy
      • Autophagy and Tumor Immunity
      • Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Autophagy
      • Discussion
      • References
    • Chapter 14. The Role of Autophagy in Cancer and Chemotherapy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pro- and Antitumor Functions of Autophagy in Tumorigenesis
      • The Dual Effect of Autophagy in Chemotherapy
      • Discussion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Autophagy Activation in the Tumor Microenvironment: A Major Process in Shaping the Antitumor Immune Response
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Hypoxia-Dependent Activation of Autophagy
      • EffectS of Hypoxia-Induced Autophagy on the Antitumor Immune Response
      • Autophagy Inhibition in Cancer Therapy: Friend or Foe?
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Omega-3 DHA and EPA Conjugates Trigger Autophagy Through PPARγ Activation in Human Breast Cancer Cells
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • DHA and EPA Conjugates Induced Autophagy: Regulation of Beclin-1
      • Autophagic Process Triggered by DHA and EPA Conjugates
      • PPARγ as Central Mediator in the Cross Talk Between Autophagy and Apoptosis
      • Discussion
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Pro-oxidative Phytoagents Induce Autophagy in Tumors: Villain or Benefactor in Cancer Treatment?
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Autophagy in Cancer
      • Autophagy in Anticancer Activities of Pro-oxidative Phytoagents
      • Final Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Abbreviations and Glossary
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
418
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128029527
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128029374

About the Editor

M. Hayat

M. Hayat

Dr. Hayat has published extensively in the fields of microscopy, cytology, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and antigen retrieval methods. He is Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, NJ, USA

Ratings and Reviews