Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128029367, 9780128029510

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

1st Edition

Volume 9: Human Diseases and Autophagosome

Editors: M. Hayat
eBook ISBN: 9780128029510
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128029367
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th April 2016
Page Count: 430
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Description

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging: Volume 9: Human Diseases and Autophagosome offers a valuable guide to both cellular processes while helping researchers explore their potentially important connections.

Volume 9 emphasizes the role of autophagy in diseases, such as leukemia, antifungal and antibacterial immunity, and transplantation. This volume also explains, in detail, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the formation of autophagosomes, including the progression of omegasomes to autophagosomes. This information is important because one of the major functions of autophagy is to degrade and eliminate excessive, old, and harmful materials from the cell. Autophagosomes receive these materials (cellular cargo) and transport them to lysosomes for degradation. Lysosomes contain the digestive enzymes (hydrolases) that breakdown proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, etc. (self-digestion).

To further explain this phenomenon, the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the formation of autophagosomes is discussed. ULK1 and Beclin 1 proteins are also important in the initial formation of autophagosomes, and are also discussed. Because much of the early research in this area was carried out using yeast cells, the role of Golgi complex in the autophagosome formation in these cells is explained.

This volume also includes an explanation of the role of the autophagy-related gene ATG5 in cancer (e.g., gastrointestinal cancer). Paradoxically, autophagy is a “double-edged sword” because it eliminates some pathogens, whereas it can be used by some intracellular pathogens to multiply and cause infection. This book is an asset to newcomers, providing a concise overview of the role of autophagy in necrosis and inflammation, while also serving as an excellent reference for more experienced scientists and clinicians.

Key Features

  • Presents the most advanced information regarding the role of the autophagic system in life and death
  • emphasizes autophagy in diseases, such as leukemia
  • Introduces new, more effective therapeutic strategies in the development of targeted drugs and programmed cell death, providing information that will aid in preventing detrimental inflammation
  • States recent advancements in the molecular mechanisms underlying a large number of genetic and epigenetic diseases and abnormalities
  • Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field from around the globe—the broadest, most expert coverage available

Readership

Academic/clinical professors, post-doctoral fellows, graduate and medical students in immunology, microbiology, pathology, infectious diseases and cancer research

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Mitophagy and Biogenesis
  • Dedication
  • Autophagy and Cancer
  • Some Thoughts on Autophagy and Immunity
  • Autophagy: Friend or Foe?
  • Autophagy: If and When
  • What Happened When Autophagy Didn’t
  • Sugar Isn’t Always Sweet
  • Mitochondrial Mysteries
  • A Photo Is Static, An Instant in Time
  • Autophagy Subversion
  • Foreword
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Autophagy: Volume 1 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 2 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 3 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 4 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 5 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 6 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 7 – Contributions
  • Autophagy: Volume 8 – Contributions
  • Part I: Molecular Mechanisms
    • Chapter 1. Overview of Autophagy
      • Abstract
      • Specific Functions of Autophagy (A Summary)
      • Autophagy in Normal Mammalian Cells
      • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Major Types of Autophagies
      • Autophagosome Formation
      • Autophagic Lysosome Reformation
      • Protein Synthesis
      • Autophagic Proteins
      • Aggrephagy
      • Monitoring Autophagy
      • Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
      • Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)
      • Role of Autophagy in Tumorigenesis and Cancer
      • Role of Autophagy in Immunity
      • Autophagy and Senescence
      • Role of Autophagy in Viral Defense and Replication
      • Role of Autophagy in Intracellular Bacterial Infection
      • Role of Autophagy in Heart Disease
      • Role of Autophagy in Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Cross-Talk Between Autophagy and Apoptosis
      • Autophagy and Ubiquitination
      • Autophagy and Necroptosis
      • Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission
      • Selective Autophagy
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Autophagic Structures in Yeast
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Autophagic Bodies
      • Autophagosomes
      • CVT Vesicles and CVT Bodies
      • Pre-Autophagosomal Structure and Isolation Membranes
      • Membrane Structures Involved in Pexophagy in P. pastoris
      • Atg9 Vesicles
      • Membrane Contact Sites Involved in Autophagy
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Mitophagy: Sensors, Regulators, and Effectors
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Regulation of Autophagy by Actin-Associated Signaling Pathways
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Roles for Actin in Autophagy: Evidence From Yeast
      • ROCK Regulation of Autophagosome Formation
      • ROCK Regulation of Beclin 1 for Autophagy Induction
      • Activation of Beclin 1 at the Actin Cytoskeleton
      • A Role for Myosin II During Early Stages of Autophagy
      • Role for Myosin VI During Late Stages of Autophagy Maturation
      • Role for Myosin VI During Early Autophagosome Formation
      • WASH Regulation of Endosome Trafficking
      • WASH Regulation of Ubiquitination
      • Convergence of WASH and Ambra1 Pathways
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 5. G2019S Mutation of LRRK2 Increases Autophagy via MEK/ERK Pathway
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Role of Autophagy in Parkinson’s Disease
      • Genetic and Environmental Factors in PD
      • Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2)
      • Role of LRRK2 in Autophagy
      • Autophagy Dysregulation in G2019S LRRK2
      • Susceptibility of G2019S LRRK2 Fibroblasts to MPP+
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Cargo Proteins Facilitate the Formation of Transport Vesicles, but not Autophagosomes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cargo Proteins of the CVT Pathway
      • Receptors for the CVT Pathway
      • Mechanism of APE1 Targeting to the PAS
      • Cargo-Dependent Organization of the PAS and Formation of Transport Vesicles
      • Regulation of the CVT Vesicle Formation
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Absence of Bax and Bak: Implications for Autophagy and Alternative Mitochondrial Functions
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Mitochondria and Mitochondrial Pore Opening in Apoptosis
      • Function of BAX and BAK Proteins
      • BAX and BAK in Skeletal Muscle
      • Novel Mitochondrial Roles for BAX and BAK
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 8. The Antiapoptotic Protein BCL-2 Has Also an Antiautophagy Role Through Beclin 1 Inhibition
      • Abstract
      • Discovery of the Beclin 1–BCL-2 Interaction
      • Role and Regulation of the Beclin-1–BCL-2 Interaction in Autophagosome Formation
      • Role of the Beclin-1–BCL-2 Interaction in Physiopathology
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Organic Pollutant Perfluorooctane Sulfonate–Induced Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization Blocks Autophagy Flux in Human Hepatoma Cells
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • PFOS Blocked Autophagosome Degradation in HEPG2 Cells
      • PFOS Induced LMP in HEPG2 Cells
      • PFOS Caused Autophagic Cell Death in HEPG2 Cells
      • Discussion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Part II: Autophagy and Cancer
    • Chapter 10. Mutant p53 Located in the Cytoplasm Inhibits Autophagy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Overview of the Autophagic Pathway
      • Mechanisms of Autophagy Regulation
      • Autophagy and Cancer Development
      • The Tumor Suppressor p53
      • p53 and Autophagy
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Role of Autophagy in Regulation Survival or Death of Cancer Cells
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Common Oncogenic Signals of Autophagy
      • Autophagy Regulates Survival of Cancer Cells
      • Autophagic Cell Death in Cancer Cells
      • Autophagy Regulates Cancer Development
      • Anticancer Therapeutic Application of Autophagy
      • Discussion
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Regulation of Autophagy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: The Role of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: An Overview
      • Autophagy at a Glance
      • Basal Autophagy in CLL
      • Pharmacological Modulation of Autophagy in CLL
      • Overview of HDAC Inhibitors and Their Anticancer Effects
      • HDAC Inhibitors and Autophagy
      • Conclusions and Perspectives
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Improving the Survival of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Against Oxidative Stress in Transplantation: Role of Autophagy Induction
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Autophagy
      • Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
      • Stem Cell and Autophagy
      • Role of Autophagy Induction in MSCs Under Oxidative Stress
      • Discussion
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Part III: Autophagy and Infection
    • Chapter 14. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Mediates Vacuolating Cytotoxin-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis During Helicobacter pylori Infection
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Cytomegalovirus Blocks Autophagy During Infection of the Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Functional Relationship Between Autophagy and Apoptosis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Animal and Cell Model for CMV Retinitis
      • Autophagy Response in MCMV-Infected RPE Cells
      • Rapamycin Regulates Autophagy and Cell Death
      • Discussion
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Unusual Functions for the Autophagy Machinery in Apicomplexan Parasites
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • A Reduced ATG Repertoire in Apicomplexa
      • Evidences for a Canonical Autophagy Pathway
      • Unusual Localization and Function of ATG8 at the Apicoplast
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Subversion of Innate Phagocytic Cells by Orientia tsutsugamushi
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Molecular and Cellular Interactions of O. tsutsugamushi with Host Cells
      • Interactions of O. tsutsugamushi with Dendritic Cells and Macrophages
      • Evasion of Cellular Autophagy by O. tsutsugamushi
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Intracellular Bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum Induces Autophagy by Secreting Substrate Ats-1 that Neutralizes the Beclin 1-ATG14L Autophagy Initiation Pathway
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Discussion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Host Autophagy in Antifungal Immunity
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Autophagy in Antifungal Immunity
      • Concluding Remarks
      • References
  • Abbreviations and Glossary
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
430
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128029510
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128029367

About the Editor

M. Hayat

M. Hayat

Dr. Hayat has published extensively in the fields of microscopy, cytology, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and antigen retrieval methods. He is Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, NJ, USA