Autonomic Nervous System - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444534910, 9780444534927

Autonomic Nervous System, Volume 117

1st Edition

Editors: Ruud Buijs Dick Swaab
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444534910
eBook ISBN: 9780444534927
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 19th November 2013
Page Count: 464
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Table of Contents

Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series

Foreword

Preface

Contributors

Chapter 1. The autonomic nervous system: a balancing act

Abstract

Introduction and overview of the autonomic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous output

The blank spots

The brain balances its autonomic output

Concluding remarks

References

Further reading

Chapter 2. Differential responses of components of the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Historical overview

Components of the autonomic nervous system

Scientific integrative medicine

Differential sympathetic noradrenergic, sympathetic adrenergic, and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical responses to stressors

Differential involvement of autonomic components in pathophysiological states

References

Chapter 3. Cotransmission in the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Early studies

Sympathetic nerves

Parasympathetic nerves

Sensory-motor nerves

Intrinsic enteric and cardiac neurons

Physiological significance of cotransmission

Cotransmitter plasticity

Concluding comments

References

Chapter 4. Sensitization of endocrine organs to anterior pituitary hormones by the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Evidence for autonomic control of the adrenal cortex

Evidence for autonomic control of the ovary

Concluding remarks

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 5. Central control of autonomic function and involvement in neurodegenerative disorders

Abstract

Overview of the central autonomic network

Autonomic output of the central nervous system

Involvement of the central autonomic network in neurodegenerative disorders

Summary

References

Chapter 6. Interaction between cognition, emotion, and the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Autonomic interaction with cognition and emotion

Autonomic integration and interaction with cognitive processes

Autonomic integration with emotion

Integrative mechanisms of stress and relevance to health

Integration in self-representation

Conclusions: a functionally integrated system

References

Chapter 7. Interoception and autonomic nervous system reflexes thermoregulation

Abstract

Anatomical and physiological aspects of human thermoregulation

Clinical testing and selected examples of abnormal thermoregulation

Conclusion

References

Chapter 8. Regulation of blood pressure by the arterial baroreflex and autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Overview of the baroreflex and terminology

The reflex arc: functional anatomy and physiology

Baroreflex control of arterial pressure: short vs. Long term

Baroreflex resetting

Assessment of baroreflex function: noninvasive and invasive methodology

Baroreflex in disease

Conclusion

References

Chapter 9. Cooling, pain, and other feelings from the body in relation to the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

The ascending pathway and its principles of organization

Homeostatic emotions

The concept of a “pain pathway”

Conclusion

Abbreviations

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 10. The neurological organization of micturition

Abstract

Introduction

The innervation of the lower urinary tract

The urothelium

The neurological control of the bladder

Disruption of control mechanisms

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 11. The clinical importance of the anti-inflammatory vagovagal reflex

Abstract

Introduction

The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

The inflammatory reflex

The gastrointestinal immune system and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

The α7 nicotinic receptor as pharmacological target

Alternative approaches to mimic/stimulate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

Clinical significance of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

Conclusion

References

Chapter 12. The role of the autonomic nervous system in cardiac arrhythmias

Abstract

Introduction

Integration of autonomic control of heart rhythm

Adrenergic influences and susceptibility to arrhythmias

Parasympathetic activity and susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias

Baroreflexes and arrhythmias

Intrinsic cardiac innervation

Nerve growth and degeneration

Behavioral stress and arrhythmias

Sleep as an autonomic stress test for the heart

Conclusions

References

Chapter 13. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Acute exercise

Chronic exercise training

Exercise therapy

References

Chapter 14. Autonomic control of bone formation: its clinical relevance

Abstract

Introduction

Evidence of autonomic nervous system involvement in bone remodeling

The sympathetic nervous system plays a pivotal role in leptin-dependent regulation of bone

Associations with clinical disorders

Conclusions

References

Chapter 15. The circadian system and the balance of the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Homeostasis and the hypothalamus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus and biological rhythms in humans

Autonomic balance and the suprachiasmatic nucleus

Autonomic disbalance may lead to disease

Circadian desynchronization may induce disease

Circadian therapies

Concluding remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 16. Autonomic nervous system control of the cerebral circulation

Abstract

Introduction

Parasympathetic influences on the cerebral circulation

Sympathetic influences upon the cerebral circulation

Autoregulation

In conclusion: clinical implications for primary headache disorders

References

Chapter 17. Autonomic regulation of kidney function

Abstract

Introduction

Renal sympathetic nerves

Renal neuropharmacology

Reflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity

Pathophysiological states

Conclusion

References

Chapter 18. Autonomic neural control of the airways

Abstract

Introduction

Airway parasympathetic and sympathetic postganglionic neurons

Central nervous system regulation of airway sympathetic neurons

Autonomic regulation of the airways at rest

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 19. Multiple system atrophy

Abstract

Introduction

Epidemiology

Clinical features and diagnostic criteria

Pathology

Pathogenesis

Therapy

Conclusion

References

Chapter 20. Pure autonomic failure

Abstract

Introduction

Background

Orthostasis: the challenge of upright posture

Clinical presentation

Autonomic assessment of cardiovascular reflexes

Sensitivity to neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists

Catecholamines

Microneurography

Sweat testing and sympathetic cholinergic innervation

Imaging

Upsit odor identification test

Pupillary responses

Supine hypertension

Exercise-induced hypotension

Signal Amplification: Eating And Drinking

Impaired renal function

Pathophysiology

Treatment/management

Future directions

References

Chapter 21. Autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease

Abstract

Introduction

Components of the autonomic nervous system

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction

Gastrointestinal dysfunction

Bladder dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction

Thermoregulation and sweating abnormalities

Conclusions

References

Chapter 22. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy

Abstract

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

Gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy

Genitourinary autonomic neuropathy

Neurovascular dysfunction

References

Chapter 23. Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in diabetes

Abstract

Introduction

Epidemiology of hypoglycemia in diabetes

Physiology of defense against hypoglycemia

Pathophysiology of defense against hypoglycemia in diabetes

Impact of hypoglycemia

Glycemic control in diabetes

Summary

Acknowledgments

Disclosures

References

Chapter 24. Sensory–autonomic interactions in health and disease

Abstract

Normal control of sweating

Regulation of cutaneous blood flow

Adrenergic involvement in axon reflexes

Adrenergic involvement in inflammatory pain

Effects of nerve injury

Sensory–autonomic interactions in neuropathic pain

Sensory–autonomic interactions in cranial dysautonomias

Conclusions

References

Chapter 25. Autoimmune autonomic failure

Abstract

Introduction

Clinical manifestations of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy

Differential diagnosis

Pathophysiology of autoimmune autonomic failure

Clinical laboratory assessment

Therapeutic approaches

Summary

References

Chapter 26. The central sympathetic nervous system in hypertension

Abstract

Introduction

Sympathetic activation in essential hypertension

Sympathetic activation and cardiovascular risk factors

Sympathetic activation and organ damage

Origin of sympathetic activation in essential hypertension

Conclusions

References

Chapter 27. Pathology of emesis: its autonomic basis

Abstract

Introduction

Mechanisms of emesis: relation to autonomic nervous system

Role of the autonomic nervous system in clinical conditions with nausea and vomiting

Therapy of nausea and vomiting in relation to the autonomic nervous system

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: participation of the autonomic nervous system

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 28. Sympathetic microneurography

Abstract

Introduction

Microelectrode recordings of sympathetic nerve activity in humans

Muscle sympathetic nerve activity in health and disease

Skin sympathetic nerve activity in health and disease

Conclusions

References

Chapter 29. Sympathetic neuroimaging

Abstract

Introduction

Sympathetic neuroimaging methods and agents

Sympathetic neuroimaging in dysautonomias

Association of cardiac noradrenergic denervation with lewy body diseases

References

Chapter 30. Skin biopsies in the assessment of the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Anatomy of the skin

Immunoflorescent staining of cutaneous tissue

Quantification of autonomic nerve fibers

Skin biopsy evaluation of specific autonomic disorders

Additional techniques

Summary

References

Chapter 31. Heart rate variability

Abstract

Introduction

Heart rate variability measurement

Clinical covariates of heart rate variability

Clinical application of heart rate variability

Summary

References

Chapter 32. Chronic activation of the baroreflex and the promise for hypertension therapy

Abstract

The baroreflex as a long-term determinant of sympathetic activity and arterial pressure

Rationale for electrical stimulation of the carotid baroreflex for hypertension therapy

Chronic electrical stimulation of the carotid baroreflex has sustained effects to suppress sympathetic activity and arterial pressure

Interaction of the carotid baroreflex with the renin–angiotensin system in long-term control of arterial pressure

Increases in renal excretory function are the primary determinant of the chronic blood pressure-lowering response to baroreflex activation

Electrical activation of the carotid baroreflex abolishes obesity hypertension

Surprisingly, the renal nerves are not essential for long-term reductions in arterial pressure during baroreflex activation

Blood pressure lowering by antihypertensive drugs is potentiated by chronic baroreflex activation

Baroreflex activation therapy in patients with resistant hypertension: benefits beyond blood pressure reduction

Conclusions

References

Index


Description

Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series

Foreword

Preface

Contributors

Chapter 1. The autonomic nervous system: a balancing act

Abstract

Introduction and overview of the autonomic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous output

The blank spots

The brain balances its autonomic output

Concluding remarks

References

Further reading

Chapter 2. Differential responses of components of the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Historical overview

Components of the autonomic nervous system

Scientific integrative medicine

Differential sympathetic noradrenergic, sympathetic adrenergic, and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical responses to stressors

Differential involvement of autonomic components in pathophysiological states

References

Chapter 3. Cotransmission in the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Early studies

Sympathetic nerves

Parasympathetic nerves

Sensory-motor nerves

Intrinsic enteric and cardiac neurons

Physiological significance of cotransmission

Cotransmitter plasticity

Concluding comments

References

Chapter 4. Sensitization of endocrine organs to anterior pituitary hormones by the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Evidence for autonomic control of the adrenal cortex

Evidence for autonomic control of the ovary

Concluding remarks

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 5. Central control of autonomic function and involvement in neurodegenerative disorders

Abstract

Overview of the central autonomic network

Autonomic output of the central nervous system

Involvement of the central autonomic network in neurodegenerative disorders

Summary

References

Chapter 6. Interaction between cognition, emotion, and the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Autonomic interaction with cognition and emotion

Autonomic integration and interaction with cognitive processes

Autonomic integration with emotion

Integrative mechanisms of stress and relevance to health

Integration in self-representation

Conclusions: a functionally integrated system

References

Chapter 7. Interoception and autonomic nervous system reflexes thermoregulation

Abstract

Anatomical and physiological aspects of human thermoregulation

Clinical testing and selected examples of abnormal thermoregulation

Conclusion

References

Chapter 8. Regulation of blood pressure by the arterial baroreflex and autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Overview of the baroreflex and terminology

The reflex arc: functional anatomy and physiology

Baroreflex control of arterial pressure: short vs. Long term

Baroreflex resetting

Assessment of baroreflex function: noninvasive and invasive methodology

Baroreflex in disease

Conclusion

References

Chapter 9. Cooling, pain, and other feelings from the body in relation to the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

The ascending pathway and its principles of organization

Homeostatic emotions

The concept of a “pain pathway”

Conclusion

Abbreviations

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 10. The neurological organization of micturition

Abstract

Introduction

The innervation of the lower urinary tract

The urothelium

The neurological control of the bladder

Disruption of control mechanisms

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 11. The clinical importance of the anti-inflammatory vagovagal reflex

Abstract

Introduction

The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

The inflammatory reflex

The gastrointestinal immune system and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

The α7 nicotinic receptor as pharmacological target

Alternative approaches to mimic/stimulate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

Clinical significance of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

Conclusion

References

Chapter 12. The role of the autonomic nervous system in cardiac arrhythmias

Abstract

Introduction

Integration of autonomic control of heart rhythm

Adrenergic influences and susceptibility to arrhythmias

Parasympathetic activity and susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias

Baroreflexes and arrhythmias

Intrinsic cardiac innervation

Nerve growth and degeneration

Behavioral stress and arrhythmias

Sleep as an autonomic stress test for the heart

Conclusions

References

Chapter 13. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Acute exercise

Chronic exercise training

Exercise therapy

References

Chapter 14. Autonomic control of bone formation: its clinical relevance

Abstract

Introduction

Evidence of autonomic nervous system involvement in bone remodeling

The sympathetic nervous system plays a pivotal role in leptin-dependent regulation of bone

Associations with clinical disorders

Conclusions

References

Chapter 15. The circadian system and the balance of the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Homeostasis and the hypothalamus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus and biological rhythms in humans

Autonomic balance and the suprachiasmatic nucleus

Autonomic disbalance may lead to disease

Circadian desynchronization may induce disease

Circadian therapies

Concluding remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 16. Autonomic nervous system control of the cerebral circulation

Abstract

Introduction

Parasympathetic influences on the cerebral circulation

Sympathetic influences upon the cerebral circulation

Autoregulation

In conclusion: clinical implications for primary headache disorders

References

Chapter 17. Autonomic regulation of kidney function

Abstract

Introduction

Renal sympathetic nerves

Renal neuropharmacology

Reflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity

Pathophysiological states

Conclusion

References

Chapter 18. Autonomic neural control of the airways

Abstract

Introduction

Airway parasympathetic and sympathetic postganglionic neurons

Central nervous system regulation of airway sympathetic neurons

Autonomic regulation of the airways at rest

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 19. Multiple system atrophy

Abstract

Introduction

Epidemiology

Clinical features and diagnostic criteria

Pathology

Pathogenesis

Therapy

Conclusion

References

Chapter 20. Pure autonomic failure

Abstract

Introduction

Background

Orthostasis: the challenge of upright posture

Clinical presentation

Autonomic assessment of cardiovascular reflexes

Sensitivity to neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists

Catecholamines

Microneurography

Sweat testing and sympathetic cholinergic innervation

Imaging

Upsit odor identification test

Pupillary responses

Supine hypertension

Exercise-induced hypotension

Signal Amplification: Eating And Drinking

Impaired renal function

Pathophysiology

Treatment/management

Future directions

References

Chapter 21. Autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease

Abstract

Introduction

Components of the autonomic nervous system

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction

Gastrointestinal dysfunction

Bladder dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction

Thermoregulation and sweating abnormalities

Conclusions

References

Chapter 22. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy

Abstract

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

Gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy

Genitourinary autonomic neuropathy

Neurovascular dysfunction

References

Chapter 23. Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in diabetes

Abstract

Introduction

Epidemiology of hypoglycemia in diabetes

Physiology of defense against hypoglycemia

Pathophysiology of defense against hypoglycemia in diabetes

Impact of hypoglycemia

Glycemic control in diabetes

Summary

Acknowledgments

Disclosures

References

Chapter 24. Sensory–autonomic interactions in health and disease

Abstract

Normal control of sweating

Regulation of cutaneous blood flow

Adrenergic involvement in axon reflexes

Adrenergic involvement in inflammatory pain

Effects of nerve injury

Sensory–autonomic interactions in neuropathic pain

Sensory–autonomic interactions in cranial dysautonomias

Conclusions

References

Chapter 25. Autoimmune autonomic failure

Abstract

Introduction

Clinical manifestations of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy

Differential diagnosis

Pathophysiology of autoimmune autonomic failure

Clinical laboratory assessment

Therapeutic approaches

Summary

References

Chapter 26. The central sympathetic nervous system in hypertension

Abstract

Introduction

Sympathetic activation in essential hypertension

Sympathetic activation and cardiovascular risk factors

Sympathetic activation and organ damage

Origin of sympathetic activation in essential hypertension

Conclusions

References

Chapter 27. Pathology of emesis: its autonomic basis

Abstract

Introduction

Mechanisms of emesis: relation to autonomic nervous system

Role of the autonomic nervous system in clinical conditions with nausea and vomiting

Therapy of nausea and vomiting in relation to the autonomic nervous system

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: participation of the autonomic nervous system

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 28. Sympathetic microneurography

Abstract

Introduction

Microelectrode recordings of sympathetic nerve activity in humans

Muscle sympathetic nerve activity in health and disease

Skin sympathetic nerve activity in health and disease

Conclusions

References

Chapter 29. Sympathetic neuroimaging

Abstract

Introduction

Sympathetic neuroimaging methods and agents

Sympathetic neuroimaging in dysautonomias

Association of cardiac noradrenergic denervation with lewy body diseases

References

Chapter 30. Skin biopsies in the assessment of the autonomic nervous system

Abstract

Introduction

Anatomy of the skin

Immunoflorescent staining of cutaneous tissue

Quantification of autonomic nerve fibers

Skin biopsy evaluation of specific autonomic disorders

Additional techniques

Summary

References

Chapter 31. Heart rate variability

Abstract

Introduction

Heart rate variability measurement

Clinical covariates of heart rate variability

Clinical application of heart rate variability

Summary

References

Chapter 32. Chronic activation of the baroreflex and the promise for hypertension therapy

Abstract

The baroreflex as a long-term determinant of sympathetic activity and arterial pressure

Rationale for electrical stimulation of the carotid baroreflex for hypertension therapy

Chronic electrical stimulation of the carotid baroreflex has sustained effects to suppress sympathetic activity and arterial pressure

Interaction of the carotid baroreflex with the renin–angiotensin system in long-term control of arterial pressure

Increases in renal excretory function are the primary determinant of the chronic blood pressure-lowering response to baroreflex activation

Electrical activation of the carotid baroreflex abolishes obesity hypertension

Surprisingly, the renal nerves are not essential for long-term reductions in arterial pressure during baroreflex activation

Blood pressure lowering by antihypertensive drugs is potentiated by chronic baroreflex activation

Baroreflex activation therapy in patients with resistant hypertension: benefits beyond blood pressure reduction

Conclusions

References

Index

Key Features

  • A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, which has an unparalleled reputation as the world's most comprehensive source of information in neurology
  • International list of contributors, including the leading workers in the field
  • Describes the advances that have occurred in clinical neurology and the neurosciences and their impact on the understanding of neurological disorders and on patient care

Readership

Neuroscience and clinical neurology research and practitioners


Details

No. of pages:
464
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444534927
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444534910

Reviews

"This volume departs from other books on the autonomous nervous system by emphasizing how it is fully integrated with the rest of the brain and that it is multi-systemic, with integration occurring at many different levels of the central nervous system. The treatment, therefore, could interest biologists and medical researchers as well as neurologists."--ProtoView.com, January 2014


About the Editors

Ruud Buijs Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F

Dick Swaab Editor

Dick Swaab (1944) earned his medical and doctoral degrees at the University of Amsterdam, where he became involved in brain research during his third year of medical school. He was Director of the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research from 1978 to 2005. Since 1979 he is Professor of Neurobiology at the Medical Faculty, University of Amsterdam. In 1985, Dr. Swaab founded the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) to serve as a source of clinically and neuropathologically well-documented research tissue. Since its founding, the Brain Bank has provided samples from more than 4,000 autopsies to 500 research groups in 25 countries. He was director of the NBB until 2005. He is Leader Research team Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Neth. Inst for Neuroscience, an institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). Swaab is also appointed for 2011-2017 Chao Kuang Piu Chair of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, P.R. China. His major research interests focus on, sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation, aging of the brain, Alzheimer’s disease, the neurobiological basis of depression, suicide and eating disorders. He has published over 540 papers in SCI journals, authored more than 200 chapters in books, and edited more than 60 books. Swaab mentored 84 PhD students from which 16 are now full professor. He is “Companion in the Order of the Dutch Lion”, bestowed by her Royal Majesty Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands. In 2008 Swaab obtained the Academy medal for his role in national and international neuroscience. Dick Swaab is author of the 2 volume monograph The Human Hypothalamus that appeared in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1000 pp) and the Dutch best seller We are our Brains (450.000 copies sold), that is translated in 14 languages. A children's version of the book (You are your brains) has also appeared in Dutch in 2013 and Russian (2014). Swaab's H-factor is 76.

Affiliations and Expertise

Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands