Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System

1st Edition - November 11, 2013

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  • Editors: Ruud Buijs, Dick Swaab
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444534927
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444534910

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Description

Autonomic Nervous System provides an introduction to the latest science and detailed chapters on advances in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of autonomic system disorders. The autonomic nervous system controls all involuntary actions within the human nervous system. Core body functions regulated by the autonomic system include breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure, body temperature, perspiration, and bowel, bladder and sexual function. Our understanding of the neurotransmitters associated with the autonomic nervous system has expanded over the past 15 years associated with current research efforts and are now impacting the diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders by clinical neurologists. This volume is a valuable companion for neuroscience and clinical neurology researchers and practitioners.

Key Features

  • A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, which has an unparalleled reputation as the world's most comprehensive source of information in neurology
  • International list of contributors, including the leading workers in the field
  • Describes the advances that have occurred in clinical neurology and the neurosciences and their impact on the understanding of neurological disorders and on patient care

Readership

Neuroscience and clinical neurology research and practitioners

Table of Contents

  • Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series

    Foreword

    Preface

    Contributors

    Chapter 1. The autonomic nervous system: a balancing act

    Abstract

    Introduction and overview of the autonomic nervous system

    The sympathetic nervous system

    The parasympathetic nervous output

    The blank spots

    The brain balances its autonomic output

    Concluding remarks

    References

    Further reading

    Chapter 2. Differential responses of components of the autonomic nervous system

    Abstract

    Historical overview

    Components of the autonomic nervous system

    Scientific integrative medicine

    Differential sympathetic noradrenergic, sympathetic adrenergic, and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical responses to stressors

    Differential involvement of autonomic components in pathophysiological states

    References

    Chapter 3. Cotransmission in the autonomic nervous system

    Abstract

    Early studies

    Sympathetic nerves

    Parasympathetic nerves

    Sensory-motor nerves

    Intrinsic enteric and cardiac neurons

    Physiological significance of cotransmission

    Cotransmitter plasticity

    Concluding comments

    References

    Chapter 4. Sensitization of endocrine organs to anterior pituitary hormones by the autonomic nervous system

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Evidence for autonomic control of the adrenal cortex

    Evidence for autonomic control of the ovary

    Concluding remarks

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 5. Central control of autonomic function and involvement in neurodegenerative disorders

    Abstract

    Overview of the central autonomic network

    Autonomic output of the central nervous system

    Involvement of the central autonomic network in neurodegenerative disorders

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 6. Interaction between cognition, emotion, and the autonomic nervous system

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Autonomic interaction with cognition and emotion

    Autonomic integration and interaction with cognitive processes

    Autonomic integration with emotion

    Integrative mechanisms of stress and relevance to health

    Integration in self-representation

    Conclusions: a functionally integrated system

    References

    Chapter 7. Interoception and autonomic nervous system reflexes thermoregulation

    Abstract

    Anatomical and physiological aspects of human thermoregulation

    Clinical testing and selected examples of abnormal thermoregulation

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 8. Regulation of blood pressure by the arterial baroreflex and autonomic nervous system

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Overview of the baroreflex and terminology

    The reflex arc: functional anatomy and physiology

    Baroreflex control of arterial pressure: short vs. Long term

    Baroreflex resetting

    Assessment of baroreflex function: noninvasive and invasive methodology

    Baroreflex in disease

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 9. Cooling, pain, and other feelings from the body in relation to the autonomic nervous system

    Abstract

    Introduction

    The ascending pathway and its principles of organization

    Homeostatic emotions

    The concept of a “pain pathway”

    Conclusion

    Abbreviations

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 10. The neurological organization of micturition

    Abstract

    Introduction

    The innervation of the lower urinary tract

    The urothelium

    The neurological control of the bladder

    Disruption of control mechanisms

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 11. The clinical importance of the anti-inflammatory vagovagal reflex

    Abstract

    Introduction

    The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    The inflammatory reflex

    The gastrointestinal immune system and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    The α7 nicotinic receptor as pharmacological target

    Alternative approaches to mimic/stimulate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Clinical significance of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 12. The role of the autonomic nervous system in cardiac arrhythmias

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Integration of autonomic control of heart rhythm

    Adrenergic influences and susceptibility to arrhythmias

    Parasympathetic activity and susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias

    Baroreflexes and arrhythmias

    Intrinsic cardiac innervation

    Nerve growth and degeneration

    Behavioral stress and arrhythmias

    Sleep as an autonomic stress test for the heart

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 13. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Acute exercise

    Chronic exercise training

    Exercise therapy

    References

    Chapter 14. Autonomic control of bone formation: its clinical relevance

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Evidence of autonomic nervous system involvement in bone remodeling

    The sympathetic nervous system plays a pivotal role in leptin-dependent regulation of bone

    Associations with clinical disorders

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 15. The circadian system and the balance of the autonomic nervous system

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Homeostasis and the hypothalamus

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus and biological rhythms in humans

    Autonomic balance and the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Autonomic disbalance may lead to disease

    Circadian desynchronization may induce disease

    Circadian therapies

    Concluding remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 16. Autonomic nervous system control of the cerebral circulation

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Parasympathetic influences on the cerebral circulation

    Sympathetic influences upon the cerebral circulation

    Autoregulation

    In conclusion: clinical implications for primary headache disorders

    References

    Chapter 17. Autonomic regulation of kidney function

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Renal sympathetic nerves

    Renal neuropharmacology

    Reflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity

    Pathophysiological states

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 18. Autonomic neural control of the airways

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Airway parasympathetic and sympathetic postganglionic neurons

    Central nervous system regulation of airway sympathetic neurons

    Autonomic regulation of the airways at rest

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 19. Multiple system atrophy

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Clinical features and diagnostic criteria

    Pathology

    Pathogenesis

    Therapy

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 20. Pure autonomic failure

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Background

    Orthostasis: the challenge of upright posture

    Clinical presentation

    Autonomic assessment of cardiovascular reflexes

    Sensitivity to neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists

    Catecholamines

    Microneurography

    Sweat testing and sympathetic cholinergic innervation

    Imaging

    Upsit odor identification test

    Pupillary responses

    Supine hypertension

    Exercise-induced hypotension

    Signal Amplification: Eating And Drinking

    Impaired renal function

    Pathophysiology

    Treatment/management

    Future directions

    References

    Chapter 21. Autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Components of the autonomic nervous system

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction

    Bladder dysfunction

    Sexual dysfunction

    Thermoregulation and sweating abnormalities

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 22. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    Abstract

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

    Gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy

    Genitourinary autonomic neuropathy

    Neurovascular dysfunction

    References

    Chapter 23. Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in diabetes

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Epidemiology of hypoglycemia in diabetes

    Physiology of defense against hypoglycemia

    Pathophysiology of defense against hypoglycemia in diabetes

    Impact of hypoglycemia

    Glycemic control in diabetes

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    Disclosures

    References

    Chapter 24. Sensory–autonomic interactions in health and disease

    Abstract

    Normal control of sweating

    Regulation of cutaneous blood flow

    Adrenergic involvement in axon reflexes

    Adrenergic involvement in inflammatory pain

    Effects of nerve injury

    Sensory–autonomic interactions in neuropathic pain

    Sensory–autonomic interactions in cranial dysautonomias

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 25. Autoimmune autonomic failure

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Clinical manifestations of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy

    Differential diagnosis

    Pathophysiology of autoimmune autonomic failure

    Clinical laboratory assessment

    Therapeutic approaches

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 26. The central sympathetic nervous system in hypertension

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Sympathetic activation in essential hypertension

    Sympathetic activation and cardiovascular risk factors

    Sympathetic activation and organ damage

    Origin of sympathetic activation in essential hypertension

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 27. Pathology of emesis: its autonomic basis

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of emesis: relation to autonomic nervous system

    Role of the autonomic nervous system in clinical conditions with nausea and vomiting

    Therapy of nausea and vomiting in relation to the autonomic nervous system

    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: participation of the autonomic nervous system

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 28. Sympathetic microneurography

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Microelectrode recordings of sympathetic nerve activity in humans

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity in health and disease

    Skin sympathetic nerve activity in health and disease

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 29. Sympathetic neuroimaging

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Sympathetic neuroimaging methods and agents

    Sympathetic neuroimaging in dysautonomias

    Association of cardiac noradrenergic denervation with lewy body diseases

    References

    Chapter 30. Skin biopsies in the assessment of the autonomic nervous system

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Anatomy of the skin

    Immunoflorescent staining of cutaneous tissue

    Quantification of autonomic nerve fibers

    Skin biopsy evaluation of specific autonomic disorders

    Additional techniques

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 31. Heart rate variability

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Heart rate variability measurement

    Clinical covariates of heart rate variability

    Clinical application of heart rate variability

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 32. Chronic activation of the baroreflex and the promise for hypertension therapy

    Abstract

    The baroreflex as a long-term determinant of sympathetic activity and arterial pressure

    Rationale for electrical stimulation of the carotid baroreflex for hypertension therapy

    Chronic electrical stimulation of the carotid baroreflex has sustained effects to suppress sympathetic activity and arterial pressure

    Interaction of the carotid baroreflex with the renin–angiotensin system in long-term control of arterial pressure

    Increases in renal excretory function are the primary determinant of the chronic blood pressure-lowering response to baroreflex activation

    Electrical activation of the carotid baroreflex abolishes obesity hypertension

    Surprisingly, the renal nerves are not essential for long-term reductions in arterial pressure during baroreflex activation

    Blood pressure lowering by antihypertensive drugs is potentiated by chronic baroreflex activation

    Baroreflex activation therapy in patients with resistant hypertension: benefits beyond blood pressure reduction

    Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 464
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: November 11, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444534927
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444534910

About the Editors

Ruud Buijs

Dr. Ruud M. Buijs is head of the Physiology department of the I.I.Biomedicas at the UNAM university and leader of the group Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms. In that group, the scientists study how the brain and body interact with each other, and hereby the attention is focussed on autonomic and hormonal regulation of body functions under the influence of the biological clock of the brain.

Affiliations and Expertise

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F.

Dick Swaab

Dick Swaab (1944) earned his medical and doctoral degrees at the University of Amsterdam, where he became involved in brain research during his third year of medical school. He was Director of the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research from 1978 to 2005. Since 1979 he is Professor of Neurobiology at the Medical Faculty, University of Amsterdam.

In 1985, Dr. Swaab founded the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) to serve as a source of clinically and neuropathologically well-documented research tissue. Since its founding, the Brain Bank has provided samples from more than 4,000 autopsies to 500 research groups in 25 countries. He was director of the NBB until 2005.

He is Leader Research team Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Neth. Inst for Neuroscience, an institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). Swaab is also appointed for 2011-2017 Chao Kuang Piu Chair of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, P.R. China.

His major research interests focus on, sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation, aging of the brain, Alzheimer’s disease, the neurobiological basis of depression, suicide and eating disorders. He has published over 540 papers in SCI journals, authored more than 200 chapters in books, and edited more than 60 books. Swaab mentored 84 PhD students from which 16 are now full professor. He is “Companion in the Order of the Dutch Lion”, bestowed by her Royal Majesty Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands. In 2008 Swaab obtained the Academy medal for his role in national and international neuroscience.

Dick Swaab is author of the 2 volume monograph The Human Hypothalamus that appeared in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1000 pp) and the Dutch best seller We are our Brains (450.000 copies sold), that is translated in 14 languages. A children's version of the book (You are your brains) has also appeared in Dutch in 2013 and Russian (2014). Swaab's H-factor is 76.

Affiliations and Expertise

Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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