Automotive Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

Automotive Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

1st Edition - February 1, 2000

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  • Authors: F. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D.L. Harrington
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080552798

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The process of fuel injection, spray atomization and vaporization, charge cooling, mixture preparation and the control of in-cylinder air motion are all being actively researched and this work is reviewed in detail and analyzed. The new technologies such as high-pressure, common-rail, gasoline injection systems and swirl-atomizing gasoline fuel injections are discussed in detail, as these technologies, along with computer control capabilities, have enabled the current new examination of an old objective; the direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC), gasoline engine. The prior work on DISC engines that is relevant to current GDI engine development is also reviewed and discussed. The fuel economy and emission data for actual engine configurations have been obtained and assembled for all of the available GDI literature, and are reviewed and discussed in detail. The types of GDI engines are arranged in four classifications of decreasing complexity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each class are noted and explained. Emphasis is placed upon consensus trends and conclusions that are evident when taken as a whole; thus the GDI researcher is informed regarding the degree to which engine volumetric efficiency and compression ratio can be increased under optimized conditions, and as to the extent to which unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC), NOx and particulate emissions can be minimized for specific combustion strategies. The critical area of GDI fuel injector deposits and the associated effect on spray geometry and engine performance degradation are reviewed, and important system guidelines for minimizing deposition rates and deposit effects are presented. The capabilities and limitations of emission control techniques and after treatment hardware are reviewed in depth, and a compilation and discussion of areas of consensus on attaining European, Japanese and North American emission standards presented. All known research, prototype and production GDI engines worldwide are reviewed as to performance, emissions and fuel economy advantages, and for areas requiring further development. The engine schematics, control diagrams and specifications are compiled, and the emission control strategies are illustrated and discussed. The influence of lean-NOx catalysts on the development of late-injection, stratified-charge GDI engines is reviewed, and the relative merits of lean-burn, homogeneous, direct-injection engines as an option requiring less control complexity are analyzed.


Engineers who require access to data pertaining to recent fuel economy and emmission data as well as details of recent research that has been carried out in this field

Table of Contents

  • Nomenclature

    1. Introduction

    1.1. Overview

    1.2. Key Potential Benefits: GDI Engine Versus PFI Engine

    2. Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel System

    2.1. Fuel System Requirements

    2.2. Fuel Injector Considerations

    2.3. Fuel Spray Characteristics

    2.3.1. Atomization Requirements

    2.3.2. Single-Fluid High-Pressure Swirl Injector

    2.3.3. Effect of Injector Sac Volume

    2.3.4. Air-Assisted Injection

    2.3.5. Best Practice Performance of Current GDI Injectors

    2.3.6. Future Requirements of GDI Fuel Sprays

    3. Combustion Chamber Geometry and In-Cylinder Mixture Dynamics

    3.1. Flow Structure

    3.2. Fuel - Air Mixing

    4. Combustion Process and Control Strategies

    4.1. Combustion Chamber Geometry

    4.2. In-Cylinder Charge Cooling

    4.3. Engine Operating Modes and Fuel Injection Strategies

    4.4. Combustion Characteristics

    4.5. Injector Deposit Issues

    5. Fuel Economy and Emissions

    5.1. Fuel Economy Potential

    5.2. Emissions Versus Fuel Economy Compromise

    5.2.1. UBHC Emissions

    5.2.2. NOx Emissions

    5.2.3. Particulate Emissions

    6. Specific Combustion Systems and Control Strategies

    6.1. Early Research Engines

    6.2. Mitsubishi Combustion System

    6.3. Toyota Combustion System

    6.4. Nissan Combustion System

    6.5. Ford Combustion System

    6.6. Isuzu Combustion System

    6.7. Mercedes-Benz Combustion System

    6.8. Mazda Combustion System

    6.9. Audi Combustion System

    6.10. Honda Combustion System

    6.11. Subaru Combustion System

    6.12. Fiat Combustion System

    6.13. Renault Combustion System

    6.14. Ricardo Combustion System

    6.15. AVL Combustion System

    6.16. FEV Combustion System

    6.17. Orbital Combustion System

    7. Conclusion


Product details

  • No. of pages: 128
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 2000
  • Published: February 1, 2000
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080552798

About the Authors

F. Zhao

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA

M.-C. Lai

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA

D.L. Harrington

Affiliations and Expertise

Thermal and Energy

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