Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine, 2-Volume Set

Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine, 2-Volume Set

7th Edition - September 21, 2016

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  • Authors: Paul Auerbach, Tracy Cushing, N. Stuart Harris
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323359429
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323396097

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Description

Now in its 7th edition, Auerbach’s Wilderness Medicine continues to help you quickly and decisively manage medical emergencies encountered in any wilderness or other austere setting! World-renowned authority Dr. Paul Auerbach and 2 new associate editors have assembled a team of experts to offer proven, practical, visual guidance for effectively diagnosing and treating the full range of issues that can occur in situations where time and resources are scarce. Now in an exciting 2-volume set that includes convenient online access, this indispensable resource equips physicians, nurses, advanced practice providers, first responders, and rescuers with the essential knowledge and skills to effectively address and prevent injuries and illnesses – no matter where they happen!

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • References
  • Preface
  • Video Contents
  • Photo Credits
  • Front and Back Cover, Spine, Part 17
  • Parts 1 to 5, 9, 12, 14, 16
  • Part 6
  • Parts 7, 15
  • Part 8
  • Part 10
  • Part 11
  • Part 13
  • Part 1 Mountain Medicine
  • 1 High-Altitude Physiology
  • Definitions
  • The Environment of High Altitude
  • Acclimatization to High Altitude
  • References
  • 2 High-Altitude Medicine and Pathophysiology
  • High-Altitude Syndromes
  • Other Medical Concerns at High Altitude
  • References
  • 3 High Altitude and Preexisting Medical Conditions
  • A General Framework for Evaluating Travelers with Underlying Medical Conditions
  • Specific Medical Conditions at High Altitude
  • Medication Considerations in High-Altitude Travelers with Underlying Medical Problems
  • References
  • 4 Avalanches
  • Properties of Snow
  • Avalanche Dynamics
  • Identifying Avalanche Terrain
  • Factors That Contribute to Avalanche Formation
  • Safe Travel in Avalanche Terrain
  • Avalanche Rescue
  • The Avalanche Victim
  • Avalanche Victim Physiology and Medical Treatment after Rescue
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 5 Lightning-Related Injuries and Safety
  • Historical Overview,,,
  • Modern Lightning Myths and Misconceptions
  • Incidence of Injury
  • Early Scientific Studies and Invention of the Lightning Rod
  • Physics of Lightning Stroke
  • Mechanisms of Injury by Lightning*
  • Pathophysiology of Lightning Injury
  • Injuries From Lightning,,,
  • Recognition and Acute Treatment of Lightning Injuries,
  • Forensic Investigation
  • Precautions for Avoiding Lightning Injury
  • Controversies and Ongoing Research in Lightning Injury,
  • Lightning Detection and Data Applications
  • References
  • Part 2 Cold and Heat
  • 6 Thermoregulation
  • Conceptualizing the Thermoregulatory System
  • Basics of Core Temperature
  • Consequences of Altered Core Temperature
  • Monitoring Temperature of the Core and Other Sites
  • Physical Factors That Govern Heat Exchange: the Heat Balance Equation
  • Thermoregulatory Network
  • Effector Responses
  • Evaporative Cooling
  • Metabolic Adjustments
  • Behavioral Adjustments
  • Important Modifications of Thermoregulatory Responses
  • Induced Alterations of the Regulated Temperature
  • Altered System Responsiveness and Capacities
  • References
  • 7 Accidental Hypothermia
  • Epidemiology
  • Normal Physiology of Temperature Regulation
  • Pathophysiology
  • Predisposing Factors
  • Presentation
  • Laboratory Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Fluid Resuscitation
  • Rewarming Options
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
  • Cerebral Resuscitation
  • Resuscitation Pharmacology
  • Resuscitation Complications
  • Forensic Pathology
  • Outcomes
  • References
  • 8 Immersion into Cold Water
  • History and Epidemiology
  • Physiologic Responses to Cold-Water Immersion with the Head Above Water
  • Factors That Affect Cooling of the Body's Core
  • Cold-Water Survival
  • Physiologic Responses to Cold-Water Submersion with the Head Under Water
  • Rescue (Self-Initiated or Assisted)
  • Medical Management
  • References
  • 9 Frostbite
  • History of Frostbite
  • Epidemiology
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Pathophysiology of Frostbite
  • Definitions and Classifications
  • Contributing Factors
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Field Treatment
  • Definitive Treatment (Immediate Treatment)
  • Evaluation and Treatment in the Hospital
  • Surgical Treatment
  • Long-Term Sequelae of Frostbite
  • Prediction of Individuals at Risk
  • Prevention
  • Potential Future Developments: Preventive Strategies
  • Possible Future Treatments
  • References
  • 10 Nonfreezing Cold-Induced Injuries
  • Epidemiology
  • Physiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Treatment
  • Assessing Injury Severity
  • Prevention
  • More Severe Injuries
  • Trench Foot (Immersion Foot)
  • Pernio (Chilblains)
  • Raynaud's Phenomenon
  • Cryoglobulinemia
  • Cold Urticaria
  • References
  • 11 Polar Medicine
  • The Distinction between Arctic and Antarctic Medicine
  • Importance of Polar Medicine
  • Brief History of Human Habitation in Polar Regions
  • Arctic Medical Problems
  • Antarctic Medical Practice
  • Overview and Future Developments
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 12 Pathophysiology of Heat-Related Illnesses
  • Heat Stress and Thermoregulation
  • Heat Illnesses
  • Heatstroke Epidemiology and Risk Factors
  • Pathophysiology of Heatstroke
  • Heatstroke Treatments (See Chapter 13)
  • Heatstroke Prevention
  • Genetic Polymorphisms
  • References
  • 13 Clinical Management of Heat-Related Illnesses
  • Exertional Heat Illness
  • Adaptation to Environmental Conditions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Part 3 Burns, Fire, and Radiation
  • 14 Wildland Fires
  • Wildland Fire Management and Technology
  • Wildland-Urban Interface: New Look at a Historical Problem
  • Wildland Fire Behavior
  • Fire-Related Injuries and Fatalities
  • Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Survival: Principles and Techniques
  • Wildland Fires and Human Behavior
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 15 Emergency Care of the Burned Patient
  • Epidemiology
  • Physiology
  • Types of Burns
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Treatment
  • Inhalation Injury
  • Other Considerations
  • References
  • 16 Exposure to Radiation from the Sun
  • Solar Radiation
  • Acute Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Skin: Sunburn and Tanning
  • Phototrauma
  • Sun and Skin Cancer
  • Photoprotection
  • Photosensitivity Disorders
  • Tips for the Wilderness Enthusiast
  • References
  • 17 Volcanic Eruptions, Hazards, and Mitigation
  • Mt Vesuvius, AD 79
  • Volcanoes and Their Global Distribution
  • Types of Volcanoes
  • Volcano Hazards
  • Risk Reduction from Volcanic Hazards
  • References
  • Part 4 Trauma
  • 18 Wilderness Trauma and Surgical Emergencies*
  • Wilderness Trauma Emergencies Overview
  • Primary Survey
  • Secondary Survey
  • Adjuncts to Surveys
  • Advances in Wilderness Care Adapted From Combat Medicine
  • Injuries to the Head, Face, and Neck
  • Injuries to the Thorax
  • Blunt Cardiac Injuries
  • Traumatic Asphyxia
  • Penetrating Chest Wounds
  • Injuries to the Abdomen
  • Pelvic Trauma
  • Extremity Trauma
  • Wilderness Surgical Emergencies
  • Anal Fissure and Hemorrhoids
  • Urologic Emergencies
  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
  • Sterility in the Austere Environment
  • Anesthesia in the Wilderness
  • References
  • 19 Emergency Airway Management
  • Airway Anatomy
  • The Decision to Intubate
  • Basic Airway Management
  • Airway Obstruction From a Foreign Body
  • Suction
  • Supplemental Oxygen
  • Ventilation
  • Advanced Airway Management
  • Alternative Strategies for the Difficult Airway
  • Alternative Airway Adjuncts and Techniques
  • Surgical Airway Management
  • Airway Equipment for the Wilderness
  • References
  • 20 Management of Facial Injuries
  • History and Examination of Facial Injuries
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Facial Injuries
  • Prevention of Facial Trauma
  • References
  • 21 Wound Management
  • Types of Wounds and Definitions
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Treatment
  • Complications
  • Wound Care Kit
  • References
  • 22 Wilderness Orthopedics
  • Scope of the Problem
  • Physical Examination
  • Potentially Life-Threatening Musculoskeletal Injuries
  • Upper Extremity Injuries
  • Hip and Leg Injuries
  • Other Soft Tissue and Musculoskeletal Injuries
  • Overuse Syndromes and Special Considerations
  • Spinal Disorders
  • Corticosteroid Injections
  • Returning to the Wilderness after Total Joint Replacement
  • Prosthetics in the Wilderness
  • New Technologies for Casting and Bracing
  • Decisions About Evacuation
  • References
  • 23 Splints and Slings
  • Spine Immobilization
  • Splinting of the Extremities
  • Techniques of Splinting
  • References
  • 24 Taping and Bandaging
  • Taping
  • Bandaging
  • References
  • 25 Foot Problems and Care
  • Blisters of the Foot
  • Common Foot and Ankle Injuries
  • References
  • 26 Hunting and Fishing Injuries
  • Hunting Injuries
  • Fishing Injuries
  • References
  • 27 Tactical Medicine
  • History of Tactical Medicine
  • Shared Principles of Military Tactical Combat Casualty Care and Civilian Tactical Medicine
  • Principles of Civilian Tactical Medicine
  • The Tactical Mission
  • Reserve Programs
  • Uniforms and Personal Protective Gear
  • Education and Training Programs
  • Future of Tactical Medicine
  • References
  • 28 Combat and Casualty Care
  • Background
  • Battlefield Medicine Versus Standard Civilian Prehospital Care
  • The Basics of Military Medicine
  • Blast Injuries
  • Tourniquets and Hemostatic Agents
  • Management of the Airway in Combat and Civilian Trauma
  • Chest Trauma
  • Fluid Resuscitation
  • Medication
  • Burns
  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Initial Approach to Wound Care
  • Pain Management
  • Unique Aspects of Military Triage and Mass Casualties
  • Traumatic Emotional Stress: the Continuum of Effects
  • Telemedicine
  • Unexploded Ordnance
  • Death
  • References
  • 29 Injury Prevention
  • Principles of Wilderness Injury and Prevention
  • Individual Factors and Injury Prevention
  • The Physical Environment and Injury Prevention
  • Unique Risks of Select Wilderness Activities
  • References
  • Part 5 Animals and Zoonoses
  • 30 Bites and Injuries Inflicted by Wild and Domestic Animals
  • General Epidemiology
  • Typical Victim
  • Circumstances Surrounding and Prevention of Animal Bites: Animal Behavior
  • Basic Principles for Avoiding Animal Bites
  • Evaluation and Treatment of Injuries
  • Wild Animal Attacks
  • Venomous Mammals
  • Domestic Animal Attacks
  • Medicolegal Considerations
  • References
  • 31 Rabies
  • Current Status
  • The Rabies Virus
  • Rabies IN the United States
  • Rabies In Other Countries
  • Features of Human Rabies
  • Therapy
  • Rabies Considerations for Travelers
  • Other Lyssaviruses
  • Current Rabies Developments
  • Rabies Remains a Neglected Global Public Health Crisis
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 32 Bear Behavior and Attacks
  • North American Bears
  • Prevention and Risk Reduction
  • Bear-Induced Injuries
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 33 Alligator and Crocodile Attacks
  • Characteristics, Lifestyle, and Habits
  • Feeding and Predation Habits
  • Overview of Attacks
  • Treatment of Crocodilian Bites
  • Prevention of Crocodilian Attacks
  • If an Attack Occurs
  • References
  • 34 Wilderness-Acquired Zoonoses
  • Anthrax
  • Bartonella Infections
  • Brucellosis
  • Glanders
  • Leptospirosis
  • Melioidosis
  • Rat-Bite Fever
  • Plague
  • Tularemia
  • Avian/Swine Influenza
  • Cowpox and Monkeypox Infections
  • Hantavirus Pulmonary (Cardiopulmonary) Syndrome
  • Hendra Virus
  • Nipah Virus
  • Cysticercosis (Taeniasis)
  • Echinococcosis
  • Trichinellosis
  • Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 35 Bites by Venomous Reptiles in Canada, the United States, and Mexico
  • Venomous Snakes
  • Venomous Lizards
  • Considerations before Going Into the Wilderness
  • References
  • 36 Bites by Venomous and Nonvenomous Reptiles Worldwide
  • Dangerous Reptiles
  • Venomous Snakes
  • Identification of Venomous Snakes
  • Venom Composition,,,
  • Epidemiology of Snakebite
  • Distribution of Venomous Snakes
  • Snakebite Mortality and Morbidity
  • Clinical Features of Envenoming and Pathophysiologic Mechanisms
  • Clinical Pattern of Envenoming by Different Taxa of Venomous Snakes
  • Course and Sequelae of Envenoming
  • Laboratory Investigations
  • Management of Snakebite,,,,,,,
  • Prevention of Snakebite
  • Venomous Lizards
  • Dangerous Large Reptiles
  • References
  • 37 Ranch and Rodeo Medicine
  • Ranch Medicine
  • Rodeo Medicine
  • References
  • 38 Emergency Veterinary Medicine
  • Dogs
  • Large Animals
  • References
  • Part 6 Insects and Arachnids
  • 39 Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases
  • Mosquitoes
  • Diseases Caused by Mosquitoes
  • Mosquito Control
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • 40 Malaria
  • Epidemiology
  • Malaria Parasite
  • Clinical Manifestations and Pathogenesis
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Research and Vaccine Development
  • Resources
  • References
  • 41 Arthropod Envenomation and Parasitism
  • Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps, and Ants)
  • Lepidoptera
  • Centipedes and Millipedes
  • Millipedes
  • Hemiptera (Sucking Bugs)
  • Beetles and Other Insects
  • Diptera (Two-Winged Flies)
  • Lice (Order Anoplura)
  • Fleas (Order Siphonaptera)
  • Mites (Class Arachnida, Order Acarina)
  • General Treatment of Insect Bites
  • Protection and Prevention
  • Delusions of Parasitosis
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 42 Tick-Borne Diseases
  • Ixodid Ticks
  • Argasid Ticks
  • Ticks as Poisonous Arthropods
  • Ticks as Vectors of Infectious Diseases
  • Tick-Borne Borrelial Diseases
  • Relapsing Fevers
  • Tick-Borne Viral Diseases
  • Tick-Borne Rickettsial Diseases
  • Q Fever
  • Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis
  • Babesiosis
  • Tularemia
  • Tick-Borne Disease Prevention and Awareness
  • References
  • 43 Spider Bites
  • Spiders and Their Venoms
  • General Assessment and Treatment of Spider Bites
  • Guide to Spider Diversity and Identification
  • Suborder Mygalomorphae
  • Suborder Araneomorphae
  • References
  • 44 Scorpion Envenomation
  • Scorpion Biology
  • Regional Considerations: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Treatment
  • Pathophysiology and Clinical Effects
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • References
  • 45 Protection from Blood-Feeding Arthropods
  • Mosquitoes (Family Culicidae)
  • Blackflies (Family Simuliidae)
  • Biting Midges (Family Ceratopogonidae)
  • Tabanids (Family Tabanidae)
  • Sand Flies (Family Psychodidae)
  • Tsetse Flies (Family Glossinidae)
  • Stable Flies (Family Muscidae)
  • Kissing Bugs (Family Reduviidae)
  • Fleas (Family Pulicidae)
  • Chigger Mites (Family Trombiculidae)
  • Ticks (Families Ixodidae and Argasidae)
  • Personal Protection
  • References
  • Part 7 Surgical and Medical Interventions
  • 46 Improvised Medicine in the Wilderness
  • General Assessment and Vital Signs
  • Improvised Diagnostic Equipment and Supplies
  • Improvised Treatment Equipment and Supplies
  • Improvised Airway Management (See Chapter 19)
  • Improvised Wound Management
  • Cleaning and Reusing Medical Supplies and Equipment
  • Blister Management
  • Removal of Objects
  • Trauma
  • Improvised Treatment for Orthopedic Injuries
  • Splinting and Traction Methods
  • Trauma and Hypothermia
  • Eye, Ear, Nose, Mouth, and Throat Improvisation
  • Useful Tools and Equipment to Carry
  • Improvised Transport
  • References
  • 47 Principles of Pain Management
  • First Contact
  • Pharmacologic Treatment of Acute Pain in the Wilderness
  • Pharmacologic Treatment of Specific Patient Populations in the Wilderness
  • Introduction to Regional Anesthesia for Wilderness Pain Management
  • Auricular Acupuncture in Austere Environments
  • Topical Therapies
  • Analgesia for Corneal Abrasions
  • Pretravel Preparation
  • Practical Guide to Regional Anesthesia for Emergency and Wilderness Pain Management
  • Specific Block Techniques
  • References
  • 48 The Eye in the Wilderness
  • Preliminary Planning
  • The Wilderness Eye Emergency Kit
  • Visual Acuity Measurement in the Wilderness
  • General Therapeutic Approach
  • Acute Periocular Inflammation
  • Periocular Trauma
  • Chemical Injury of the Eye
  • Acute Loss of Vision in a White, Quiet Eye
  • Acute Red Eye
  • Solar Retinopathy
  • Locating a Displaced Contact Lens
  • Improvisation
  • The Eye at Altitude
  • The Eye and Diving
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 49 Wilderness Dentistry
  • Dental Anatomy
  • History and Examination
  • Dental Trauma
  • Orofacial Pain
  • Maxillofacial Infections
  • Exodontia (Tooth Extraction)
  • Local Anesthesia
  • Dental First-Aid Kit
  • Prevention
  • References
  • 50 Wilderness Cardiology
  • Cardiovascular System Response to Specific Wilderness Environments
  • Screening and Preparation for Wilderness Travel
  • Basic Management of Cardiovascular Emergencies in the Wilderness Environment
  • References
  • 51 Wilderness Neurology
  • History and Examination
  • Acute Neurologic Conditions Secondary to Environmental Extremes
  • Basic Management of Neurologic Emergencies
  • Headache
  • Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke
  • Transient Episodes of Impaired Consciousness
  • Epilepsy
  • Syncope and Related Phenomena
  • Meningitis and Encephalitis
  • Peripheral Nervous System Conditions
  • Cranial Nerve Palsies and Vertigo
  • Sleep
  • Management of Chronic Neurologic Conditions IN Austere Settings
  • Parkinson's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Conditions
  • Suggested Readings
  • 52 Mental Health in the Wilderness
  • Mental Health Benefits: Ecotherapy and Wilderness Therapy
  • Role of Wilderness Guide/Medical Provider in Emotional and Behavioral Health
  • Specific Disorders and Symptoms
  • Suicide, Violence Potential, and Anger Management
  • Somatic Complaints
  • Insomnia
  • Response to Crisis, Trauma, and Disasters
  • Children and Adolescents in the Wilderness
  • Looking Toward the Future
  • References
  • 53 Chronic Diseases and Wilderness Activities
  • Considerations for Wilderness Travel
  • Environmental Extremes and Chronic Medical Conditions
  • Chronic Medical Conditions and Wilderness Travel
  • References
  • Part 8 Rescue and Survival
  • 54 Wilderness Emergency Medical Services and Response Systems
  • Defining Wilderness and Wilderness Medicine
  • Relationship of Emergency Medical Services, Wilderness Medicine, Disaster Medicine, and Tactical Medicine
  • History of Wilderness Emergency Medical Services
  • Wilderness Emergency Medical Services Agencies
  • Wilderness Emergency Medical Services Provider Types, Standardization, and Scope of Practice
  • Medical Oversight
  • Operations
  • Protocols
  • Equipment Specifically Needed IN Wilderness Emergency Medical Services
  • The Future of Wilderness Emergency Medical Services
  • Summary
  • References
  • 55 Search and Rescue
  • Search and Rescue: An Overview
  • Organization of a Search and Rescue Event
  • Search and Rescue Operations
  • Anatomy of a Search and Rescue Incident
  • Search and Rescue Environments within the Wilderness Setting
  • References
  • 56 Technical Rescue, Self-Rescue, and Evacuation
  • Warning
  • Terms Used in Technical Rescue
  • Epidemiology
  • Preventive Decision Making
  • Hazards in Wilderness Travel and Rescue
  • Natural Hazards
  • External Influences on Rescue Attempts
  • Hazards Resulting from Human Factors of Subjects
  • Planning for Rescue
  • Patient Care in Wilderness and Technical Environments
  • Companion Rescue
  • Improvised Searches
  • Planning for Wilderness Medicine Technical Rescue
  • Improvised Methods for Carrying an Ill or Injured Patient
  • Litters and Vacuum Mattresses for Organized Rescue
  • Patient Packaging
  • Use of Aircraft in Mountain Rescue
  • Fixed-Wing Aircraft in Mountain Rescue
  • Helicopter Rescue in the Wilderness
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
  • Canyon Rescue
  • Technical Rescue Resources for Mountain Rescue
  • Technical Rescue Medical Kit
  • Afterword
  • Medication Bag
  • Intravenous Bag
  • Miscellaneous Bag
  • Front and Top Pockets
  • Bandaging Side Pocket
  • Miscellaneous Side Pocket
  • Main Compartment
  • Airway Bag
  • Oxygen Kit†
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 57 Litters and Carries
  • Size-Up
  • Drags and Carries
  • Litter Improvisation
  • Rescue Litters and Stretchers
  • Desirable Characteristics of a Wilderness Stretcher
  • Stretchers
  • Transportation Hardware Accessories
  • Carrying a Loaded Litter
  • Patient Packaging
  • References
  • 58 Helicopter Rescue and Air Medical Transport
  • Evolution of Air Medical Transport
  • Business and Organizational Models for Air Medical Transport Programs
  • Crew Models in Air Medical Transport
  • Physician Oversight in Air Medical Transport
  • Types of Air Medical Transport Missions
  • Air Transport Aircraft
  • Aviation Logistics and Selection of a Transport Vehicle
  • Aviation Safety
  • Effects of Altitude on Air Medical Transport
  • Medical Care in the in-Flight Setting
  • Communications and Coordination of Air and Ground Medical Resources
  • Patient Populations That May be Suitable for Air Medical Transport
  • Cost-Effectiveness of Air Medical Transport
  • Air Medical Responses in Disaster and Mass Casualty Situations
  • Air Medical Responses for Search and Rescue and Alpine Operations
  • Putting It All Together: Keys to Judicious Use of Air Medical Transport
  • Air Medical Services Internet Resources
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 59 Essentials of Wilderness Survival
  • General Considerations in Survival
  • Oxygen
  • Regulation of Body Temperature
  • Cold Weather Survival
  • Shelter
  • Increasing Body Heat Production
  • Building Fires
  • Food
  • Water
  • Survival in Special Instances, Including Natural Catastrophes
  • Navigation in the Wilderness
  • Backcountry Weather Forecasting
  • Sanitation
  • Psychological and Organizational Aspects of Survival
  • Protection From Wild Animals
  • Summary of Preparations for a Possible Survival Situation
  • Optional Items
  • Mandatory for Avalanche Country
  • Basic Items
  • Other Items
  • Additional Items for Consideration
  • Suggested Readings
  • 60 Jungle Travel and Survival
  • Tropical Environment
  • Trip Preparation
  • Coping with the Jungle Environment
  • Traveling with Children in the Tropics
  • Survival
  • Survival in Hostage Situations
  • References
  • 61 Desert Travel and Survival
  • The Desert Environment
  • Preparation
  • Priorities
  • Travel
  • Suggested Readings
  • 62 Whitewater Medicine and Rescue
  • Historical Perspective
  • Injuries and Deaths From Whitewater Boating
  • Whitewater Paddling Equipment
  • River Hazards
  • Drowning
  • Trauma
  • Whitewater Rescue
  • References
  • 63 Caving and Cave Rescue
  • Environment
  • Personal Safety
  • Cave Navigation
  • Cave Search
  • Basic Evacuation
  • The Caving Expedition
  • Closing Comments
  • References
  • Part 9 Plants and Mushrooms
  • 64 Plant-Induced Dermatitis
  • Irritant Contact Dermatitis
  • Allergic Contact Dermatitis
  • Contact Urticaria: Immunologic and Nonimmunologic Subtypes
  • Phytophototoxic Contact Dermatitis
  • Phytophotoallergic Contact Dermatitis
  • References
  • 65 Toxic Plant Ingestions
  • General Considerations
  • Central Nervous System Toxins
  • Cardiovascular Toxins
  • Oral and Gastrointestinal Toxins
  • Renal Toxins
  • Hematopoietic Toxins
  • Endocrine and Metabolic Toxins
  • Reproductive Toxins
  • Other Toxins
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 66 Toxic Mushroom Ingestions
  • Nontoxic Mushrooms
  • Types of Mushroom Toxicity
  • Gastrointestinal Toxins
  • Disulfiram-Like Toxins
  • Neurologic Toxins
  • Protoplasmic Poisons
  • Approach to the Patient with Mushroom Poisoning
  • Recommended Field Guides
  • References
  • 67 Seasonal and Acute Allergic Reactions
  • Allergic Rhinitis
  • Urticaria and Angioedema
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 68 Ethnobotany
  • Evolution of Phytopharmaceuticals
  • Herbal Preparations for Clinical and Wilderness Use
  • Homeopathic Use of Botanicals
  • Topical Application
  • Use of Herbal Medicine in the Wilderness
  • North American Plant Medicines
  • First-Aid Kit of Natural Products
  • Companies
  • Books
  • Practitioners
  • Herbal Medicines
  • Nutritional Products
  • References
  • Part 10 Marine Medicine
  • 69 Drowning and Submersion Injuries
  • Classification and Types of Submersion Injuries and Drowning Scenarios
  • Incidence and Epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Pathophysiology
  • Management: the Element of Time
  • Clinical Presentation: a Case History
  • On-Scene Management
  • Emergency Department Treatment of Drowning Patients
  • In-Hospital Treatment of Drowning
  • Prognosis and Termination of Resuscitation
  • Drowning Prevention and Survival
  • References
  • 70 Safety and Survival at Sea
  • How Do People Die in Recreational Boating Accidents?
  • Personal Safety Gear
  • Crew Overboard
  • Emergencies at Sea
  • Health Maintenance at Sea
  • Marine Weather
  • Sea Conditions and Breaking Seas
  • Emergency Communications and Distress Signals
  • Abandon Ship and Life Rafts
  • Automated Merchant Vessel Reporting Program
  • Helicopter Evacuation
  • References
  • 71 Diving Medicine
  • Historical Perspective
  • Types of Diving and Diving Equipment
  • Diving Physics
  • Barotrauma
  • Arterial Gas Embolism
  • Indirect Effects of Pressure
  • Decompression Sickness
  • Long-Term Health Effects of Diving
  • Unusual Conditions of Uncertain Origin Following Dives
  • Medical Fitness for Diving
  • Medications and Diving
  • Diving with Disabilities
  • Flying after Diving
  • Safe SCUBA Diving
  • Dive Accident Investigation
  • References
  • 72 Hyperbaric Medicine
  • History of Hyperbaric Medicine
  • Mechanisms of Hyperbaric Oxygen
  • Types of Hyperbaric Chambers
  • Contraindications to Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
  • Complications of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
  • Practical Aspects of Hyperbaric Treatment
  • Approved Clinical Applications of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
  • Trends in Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Research
  • Applications for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Wilderness Medicine
  • References
  • 73 Injuries From Nonvenomous Aquatic Animals
  • Divisions and Definitions
  • In Defense of the Fish
  • General Principles of First Aid
  • Wound Management
  • Bacteriology of the Aquatic Environment
  • Sharks
  • Barracuda
  • Moray Eels
  • Giant Groupers
  • Sea Lions and Seals
  • Needlefish
  • Large Leaping Fish
  • Killer Whales
  • Giant Clams
  • Giant Squid
  • Giant Octopus
  • Giant Manta Ray
  • Mantis Shrimp
  • Piranha
  • Snapping Turtle
  • Triggerfish
  • Sawfishes
  • Stony Corals
  • Electric Fish and Rays
  • References
  • 74 Envenomation by Aquatic Invertebrates
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Phylum Porifera
  • Phylum Cnidaria
  • Phylum Echinodermata
  • Phylum Annelida
  • Phylum Mollusca
  • Summary
  • References
  • 75 Envenomation by Aquatic Vertebrates
  • Stingrays
  • Scorpionfish and Similar Venomous Fish
  • Catfish
  • Weeverfish
  • Venomous (Horned) Sharks
  • Surgeonfish
  • Platypus
  • Sea Snakes
  • Summary
  • References
  • 76 Aquatic Skin Disorders
  • Phytoplankton Dermatoses
  • Bacterial Infections
  • Parasites
  • Yeast
  • Dermatoses Related to Diving
  • References
  • 77 Seafood Toxidromes
  • Monitoring Marine Algae That Produce Phytotoxins and Seafood That May Cause Poisoning
  • Sustainable and Safe Seafood Initiatives
  • Ichthyosarcotoxism
  • Specific Toxic Syndromes Related to Seafood Consumption
  • Poisonings Associated with Algal Blooms
  • Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Seafood
  • Parasites in Seafood
  • Other Types of Poisoning Related to Seafood
  • Amebic Infections
  • Diseases Caused by Occupational Exposure to Seafood
  • References
  • 78 Seafood Allergies
  • Epidemiology
  • Biologic Classification of Seafood
  • Immunologic Mechanisms of Seafood Allergies
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Occupational Seafood Allergies
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Aftercare
  • Molecular Biology of Seafood Allergies
  • Cross-Reactivity
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • Part 11 Travel Medicine and Expeditions
  • 79 Travel Medicine
  • Sources of Information
  • Travel Health Risk Assessment
  • Hazards of Air Travel
  • Immunizations for Travel
  • Malaria
  • Traveler's Diarrhea (see Chapter 82)
  • High-Altitude Illness (see Chapter 2)
  • Radiation From the Sun (see Chapter 16)
  • Motion Sickness
  • Travel Medical Kit
  • Post-Travel Medical Care AND Screening
  • Resources for Travel Medicine Information
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 80 Expedition Medicine
  • Historical Background
  • Expedition Demographics
  • Preexisting Medical Conditions
  • The Expedition Medical Officer
  • Who is Qualified to be the Expedition Medical Officer?
  • Expedition Medical Planning
  • Communications Technology
  • Legal and Ethical Considerations of Expedition Medicine
  • Resources
  • References
  • 81 Non–North American Travel and Exotic Diseases
  • Major Viral Infections
  • Major Bacterial Infections
  • Major Protozoan Infections Other Than Malaria
  • Major Helminthic Infections
  • References
  • 82 Infectious Diarrhea from Wilderness and Foreign Travel
  • General Principles of Enteric Disease
  • Traveler's Diarrhea
  • Bacterial Enteropathogens
  • Intestinal Protozoa
  • References
  • Part 12 Disaster Medicine and Global Humanitarian Relief
  • 83 Natural Disaster Management
  • Scope of the Problem
  • Health Consequences of Disasters
  • Health and the Medical Response to Natural Disasters
  • Organizational Systems for Disaster Response
  • Core Activities of the Disaster Response and Recovery Phases
  • Professionalization of the Disaster Response
  • Social Media and Mobile Technology in Disasters
  • Responder Self-Care
  • References
  • 84 Global Humanitarian Medicine and Disaster Relief
  • Survey of Key Events and Medical Problems
  • Actors during Events: Their Capabilities, Limitations, and Usual Roles
  • Needs in Humanitarian Crises
  • Identifying Health Care Needs Following a Disaster and Setting Up a Humanitarian Intervention
  • The Aid Worker in the Humanitarian Crisis
  • Evolution of the Humanitarian System
  • Current Challenges, Controversies and Key Future Issues
  • Security, Insecurity, and Power in the Field
  • Humanitarianism and Environmentalism
  • Humanitarian Ethics and Morals
  • Documents
  • Gifts to Bring Your Team
  • Address or Contact List*
  • Gear
  • Electronics
  • First-Aid Kit
  • Toiletries
  • Extras
  • References
  • 85 Natural and Human-Made Hazards
  • Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
  • Slow-Onset Versus Rapid-Onset Hazards
  • Assessing Vulnerability and Risk
  • Disaster Mitigation Strategies
  • The Nature of Hazards
  • Geologic Hazards
  • Climatic Hazards
  • Environmental Hazards
  • Acknowledgments and Resources
  • Suggested Readings
  • 86 Global Crimes, Incarceration, and Quarantine
  • Hostile Geopolitical Environments and Political Insecurity
  • Danger by Geography: the World's Most Dangerous Places
  • High-Risk Situations for International Travelers
  • Global Crimes: Patterns and Implications for Travelers
  • Incarceration and Quarantine
  • Safety and Security Strategies for Travelers
  • Traveling and Working in a Conflict Zone: Individual Considerations
  • Summary: Traveling and Working in Politically Insecure Regions
  • References
  • Part 13 Food and Water
  • 87 Nutrition, Malnutrition, and Starvation
  • Importance of Nutrition in Stressful Environments
  • Nutritional Deprivation: Malnutrition and Starvation
  • Nutrition Planning for Wilderness Activities
  • References
  • 88 Field Water Disinfection
  • Benefits of Water Treatment
  • Risk of Waterborne Disease Transmission
  • Standards for Water Disinfection
  • Disinfection Methods: Definitions
  • Heat
  • Physical Removal
  • Chemical Disinfectants
  • Miscellaneous Disinfectants
  • Comparative Studies and Preferred Techniques
  • Prevention and Sanitation
  • Iodination
  • Chlorination
  • Chlorination-Flocculation
  • Chlorine Dioxide
  • Mixed-Species Disinfection
  • Silver
  • Miscellaneous Products
  • References
  • 89 Dehydration and Rehydration
  • Body Water, Fluid Turnover, and Fluid Requirements
  • Sweat and Sweat Prediction
  • Physiologic Consequences of Dehydration
  • Fluid Replacement (Before, During, After)
  • Acknowledgment and Disclaimer
  • References
  • 90 Living Off the Land
  • Achieving a Balanced Diet
  • Essence of Survival
  • Water Procurement and Preparation
  • Success Stories
  • Wild Animal Foods
  • Wild Plant Foods
  • Cooking Methods
  • Basic Food Preservation
  • References
  • Part 14 Unique Populations and Considerations
  • 91 Children in the Wilderness
  • What Makes Children Different?
  • General Considerations and Expectations for Children in Wilderness Travel
  • Environmental Illnesses
  • Lost Children and Survival
  • Foreign Travel with Children
  • Special Considerations for Children With Chronic Medical Problems
  • Traveling With Infants and Neonates
  • Pediatric Wilderness Medical Kits
  • Environmental Concerns and Child Health
  • References
  • 92 Women in the Wilderness
  • Gender-Based Research
  • Pre–Wilderness Travel Women's Health Assessment
  • What Makes Women Different?
  • Practical Issues for Women During Wilderness Travel
  • Pregnancy Tests
  • Contraceptive Options During Wilderness Travel
  • Gender and Risk for Venous Thromboembolism: Contraception, Pregnancy, and Beyond
  • Breast Health
  • Urinary Tract Issues
  • Vaginal Discharge or Itching
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections
  • Nonoccupational Postexposure HIV Prophylaxis
  • Personal Safety
  • Sexual Assault
  • Wilderness Travel During Pregnancy
  • Wilderness Health Issues for Women Over 50 Years of Age
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 93 Older Adults in the Wilderness
  • Definition of Older Adult
  • Why and How Some Older Adults Venture Into the Wilderness
  • Classifying “Fitness for Adventure” by Age, Health, and Functional Status
  • Environmental Stresses and Older Adults
  • Travel Medicine and Older Adults
  • Medical Examination for Older Adults Planning Wilderness Travel
  • Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Polypharmacy
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 94 Persons With Disabilities in the Wilderness
  • People With Disabilities in the Wilderness
  • Preparation for a Wilderness Adventure
  • Worldwide Wilderness Programs for Persons With Disabilities
  • Prevalence of Disability in the United States
  • A Brief History of Disabilities, Disability Terminology, and Disability Etiquette
  • Barriers That Restrict People With Disabilities
  • Wilderness Legal and Legislative Issues
  • Preparing People With Disabilities for Wilderness Adventures
  • Selected Disabilities With Wilderness Considerations
  • A Selected Emergent Medical Disability
  • Adaptive Sports
  • Assistance Dogs
  • Opportunities for Wilderness Adventures
  • References
  • 95 Physiology of Exercise, Conditioning, and Performance Training for Wilderness Adventure
  • Mental Awareness
  • Physical Conditioning
  • Improving Human Performance
  • Aging and Training
  • High Altitude and Exercise
  • Artificial Training Methods: Blood Transfusion
  • References
  • 96 Exercise, Conditioning, and Performance Training
  • Fitness as a Lifestyle
  • Conditioning
  • Performance and Injury
  • Fitness Myths
  • Performance Enhancement
  • References
  • 97 Wilderness and Endurance Events
  • Types of Events
  • Medical Support for Wilderness and Endurance Events
  • Injuries and Illnesses by Event Type
  • Specific Injuries and Illnesses: Endemic Disease
  • Major Trauma
  • Foot Care
  • Dehydration and Hyponatremia
  • References
  • 98 Canyoneering and Canyon Medicine
  • Canyoneering
  • Canyon Medicine
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 99 Cycles, Snowmobiles, and Other Wilderness Conveyances
  • Mountain Bikes
  • Snowmobiles
  • All-Terrain Vehicles
  • References
  • 100 Medical Liability and Wilderness Emergencies
  • Tort Law and the Doctrine of Negligence
  • Liability Concerns in Wilderness Medicine
  • Duty to Warn and Educate Trip Participants
  • Medical Clearance of Trip Participants
  • Professional Liability, Medical Malpractice, and Good Samaritan Laws
  • Waiver of Liability
  • Duty to Rescue and Abandonment Doctrine
  • Standing Orders and Medical Kits
  • Medical Record Keeping in Wilderness Medicine
  • Medical Liability in Foreign Countries
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 101 Ethics of Wilderness Medicine
  • Application of Values and Principles to Guide Human Activities
  • Bioethical Decision-Making Process*
  • Ethical Dilemmas in Wilderness Medicine
  • Summary
  • References
  • Part 15 Wilderness Equipment and Special Knowledge
  • 102 Wilderness Preparation, Equipment, and Medical Supplies
  • Epidemiology Review
  • General Preparation
  • Supplies, Kit Assembly Strategies, and Specialized Equipment
  • Medications Useful in the Wilderness Setting
  • Preparing for Common Medical Problems in the Wilderness
  • A Sample Journey
  • References
  • 103 Emergency Oxygen Administration
  • Indications
  • Contraindications
  • Equipment
  • Special Considerations in Nonbreathing or Inadequately Breathing Patients
  • Hazards
  • Legal Issues
  • References
  • 104 Telemedicine in the Wilderness
  • Evolution of Telemedicine
  • Telemedicine Systems Engineering
  • Modern Telemedicine
  • Telemedicine in the Wild
  • References
  • 105 Wilderness and Global Communications and Techniques
  • Two-Way Local Communication
  • Two-Way Long-Distance Voice Communication
  • Emergency Beacons
  • References
  • 106 Wilderness Navigation Techniques
  • Navigation With the Global Navigation Satellite Systems
  • Compass Navigation
  • Celestial Navigation
  • Celestial Methods for Direction Finding
  • Navigation With a Pocket Radio
  • Orienteering and Geocaching
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 107 Principles of Meteorology and Weather Prediction
  • General Circulation and Atmospheric Profile
  • Climatic Regions Controlled by Latitude: Tropics, Midlatitudes, and Poles
  • Human Comfort
  • Weather Forecasting
  • How to Interpret Forecasts
  • Forecast Products
  • How to Obtain Surface Observations
  • How to Access and Interpret Weather Satellite and Radar Data
  • Weather Prediction in the Wilderness
  • References
  • 108 Ropes and Knot Tying
  • Ropes, Webbing, and Cordage Terminology
  • Rope Selection Considerations
  • Webbing
  • Accessory Cord
  • Rope for Life Safety
  • Impact Force
  • Life Safety Rope Construction
  • Knots in Software
  • Knots and Software Strength
  • Learning More About Software and Knots
  • 109 Ultrasound in the Wilderness
  • Introduction to Ultrasound
  • Common Clinical Imaging Applications
  • Special Considerations for Ultrasound in Remote Locations
  • References
  • 110 Outdoor Clothing for the Wilderness Professional
  • Fiber and Fabric
  • Layering
  • Accessories
  • Care and Storage of Clothing
  • Special-Use Clothing
  • Sport-Specific Clothing
  • Climate-Specific Clothing
  • Selected Resources
  • 111 Nonmedical Backcountry Equipment for Wilderness Professionals
  • General Concepts for Choosing Equipment
  • Essential Emergency Equipment
  • Navigation
  • Sun Protection
  • Lights
  • Tools
  • First-Aid Kit
  • Fire-Starting Materials
  • Food
  • Water
  • Heat Packs and Heaters
  • Optics
  • Packs
  • Duffels, Stuff Sacks, and Dry Bags
  • Electronics
  • Power
  • Overnight Gear
  • Care of Outdoor Equipment
  • Selected Resources
  • 112 Native American Healing
  • Definitions
  • Assessment and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Contraindications
  • Aftercare
  • Prevention
  • Clinical Example: Back Pain
  • The Challenges of Research
  • References
  • Part 16 Wilderness Medicine Education and Research
  • 113 Wilderness Medicine Education
  • Principles of Adult Learning
  • Outcomes and Competency-Based Education
  • Assessing Learners' Needs
  • Learning Objectives
  • Assessing Learning
  • Limitations of Training
  • Teaching in Wilderness Medicine
  • Program and Curriculum Development
  • Planning for Continuing Medical Education
  • Professional Organizations and Training Programs in Wilderness Medicine
  • References
  • 114 MedWAR
  • MedWAR Mission Statement
  • The History of MedWAR
  • The MedWAR Model: How It Works
  • Simulations, Scenarios, and Education in MedWAR
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 115 Evidence-Based Wilderness Medicine
  • What EBM Is and Is Not
  • The Evidence-Based Clinical Practitioner
  • Evidence-Based Medicine: Experts Versus Practitioners
  • Evidence-Based Medicine Resources for Wilderness Medicine Providers
  • Moving Beyond Evidence-Based Medicine: What Is Implementation Science?
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 116 National Park Service Medicine
  • Mission of the National Park Service
  • History of the National Park Service
  • Organization of the National Park Service
  • Developing Advanced Medical Training for National Park Service Rangers
  • Local Control of Extended Scope of Practice
  • Continuing Education
  • Specialized Support Assets
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • 117 Genomics in Wilderness Medicine
  • Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Phenotype
  • Establishing the Genetic Basis of A Trait
  • The Era of Genomics
  • Human Genetic Variation
  • Genome-Wide Association Studies
  • Omics Revolution
  • Technologies for Identifying Genetic Variants and Their Associations With Disease
  • Genetic Responses to Extreme Environments
  • Genetic Influences on Adaptation to Temperature and Ultraviolet Radiation
  • Genetic Influences on Exertion in the Wilderness
  • Genetics in Diagnostic Tests, Treatments, and Preventive Measures
  • Moving Forward
  • References
  • Part 17 The Wilderness
  • 118 Wilderness Management and Preservation
  • Historical Development of the Wilderness Concept
  • Wilderness Legislation and Policy in the United States
  • Wilderness Stewardship Philosophy
  • Potential Threats to Wilderness
  • Wilderness Management Agencies in the United States
  • Distribution of Wilderness in the United States
  • Wilderness Values and Public Perceptions
  • Wilderness Visitors
  • Distribution of Wilderness Visitor Use
  • Wilderness Management Principles
  • Wilderness Preservation as a National and International Movement
  • References
  • 119 The Changing Environment
  • Issues of Environmental Change
  • Impacts of Environmental Change on Wilderness Areas
  • Consequences of Environmental Change
  • What Might Be Done About Limiting Environmental Change?
  • References
  • 120 Biodiversity and Human Health
  • Understanding the Etiology of the Biodiversity Crisis
  • Threatened Ecosystems
  • Species Decline
  • Loss of Genetic Diversity
  • Invasive Species
  • Public Health Concerns
  • Case Study
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 121 Health Implications of Environmental Change
  • Climate Change
  • Direct Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health
  • Health Effects Mediated Through Natural Systems
  • Climate Change as A Threat Multiplier
  • Atmospheric Aerosol Loading
  • Chemical Pollution
  • References
  • 122 Sustainability
  • Sustainability in the Wilderness
  • Energy
  • Sustainable Living
  • Hydraulic Fracturing
  • The Challenge
  • Selected Resources
  • References
  • 123 Brief Introduction to Oceanography
  • Ocean Statistics
  • Brief Appreciation of the Ocean's History and Modern Ocean Tools
  • Water Characteristics
  • Ocean Structure
  • Ocean Circulation
  • Ocean Movement: Waves, Tides, and Tsunamis
  • Conditions for Oceanic Life
  • Marine Primary Productivity
  • Important Planktonic Autotrophs
  • Harmful Algal Blooms
  • Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Marine Environmental Issues
  • 124 Brief Introduction to Forestry
  • Definitions
  • Types of Forests
  • Importance of Forests to People
  • Human Interaction With Forests
  • Hazards to People in Forests
  • References
  • 125 Brief Introduction to Earth Sciences
  • Earth's Origin
  • Earth's Interior Structure
  • Earth's Composition
  • The Brittle, Restless Crust: Plate Tectonics
  • Dynamics of Sedimentation and Sedimentary Rocks
  • Present-Day Geology as a Key to Understanding the Past
  • The Grand Canyon: an Example of Earth Science at Work
  • Selected Resources
  • 126 Space Medicine
  • The Spaceflight Environment
  • Mission Considerations
  • Physiologic Concerns of Spaceflight
  • Onboard Medical Capability
  • Summary and Future Considerations
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Appendix Drug Stability in the Wilderness
  • Environmental Factors Influencing Drug Stability
  • Expiration Dates and Shelf Life
  • Packaging
  • Sterility
  • Storage
  • Drugs for A Basic Field Kit
  • How to Read the Drug List
  • Drug List
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2848
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2016
  • Published: September 21, 2016
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323359429
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323396097

About the Authors

Paul Auerbach

Dr. Paul S. Auerbach, FACEP, FAWM, is the Redlich Family Professor of Surgery in the Division of Emergency Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. He is the world's leading expert on wilderness medicine and a prolific author. He is the Editor of Wilderness Medicine, and author of Medicine for the Outdoors and Field Guide to Wilderness Medicine.

Dr. Auerbach holds his MD from Duke and completed his internship at Dartmouth and residency at UCLA. He is certified by the American Board of Emergency Medicine. He has been recognized as a Hero of Emergency Medicine by the American College of Emergency Physicians and received the New Orleans Grand Isle Award for Science from the Academy of Underwater Arts and Sciences, the Founders Award from the Wilderness Medical Society, and the Outstanding Contribution in Education Award from the American College of Emergency Physicians, among others. Dr. Auerbach has served as a volunteer physician in Haiti, Nepal, and Guatemala.

Affiliations and Expertise

Redlich Family Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

Tracy Cushing

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado

N. Stuart Harris

Chief of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Division of Wilderness Medicine, Director of the MGH Wilderness Medicine Fellowship. attending physician in the MGH Emergency Department , Associate Professor of Emergency at Harvard Medical School (HMS).

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief, Division of Wilderness Medicine; Fellowship Director, MGH Wilderness Medicine Fellowship, Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Milton, Massachusetts; Assistant Professor, Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

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