Audio Engineering: Know It All - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856175265, 9780080949642

Audio Engineering: Know It All, Volume 1

1st Edition

Authors: Douglas Self Ben Duncan Ian Sinclair Richard Brice John Linsley Hood Andrew Singmin Don Davis Eugene Patronis John Watkinson
Paperback ISBN: 9781856175265
eBook ISBN: 9780080949642
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 29th September 2008
Page Count: 936
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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Part I Fundamentals of Sound

Chapter 1 Audio Principles 1.1 The physics of sound 1.2 Wavelength 1.3 Periodic and aperiodic signals 1.4 Sound and the ear 1.5 The cochlea 1.6 Mental processes 1.7 Level and loudness 1.8 Frequency discrimination 1.9 Frequency response and linearity 1.10 The sine wave 1.11 Root mean square measurements 1.12 The deciBel 1.13 Audio level metering References Chapter 2. Measurement 2.1 Concepts Underlying the Decibel and Its Use in Sound Systems 2.2 Measuring Electrical Power 2.3 Expressing Power as an Audio Level 2.4 Conventional Practice 2.5 The Decibel in Acoustics—LP, LW, and LI 2.6 Acoustic Intensity Level (LI), Acoustic Power Level (LW), and Acoustic Pressure Level (LP) 2.7 Inverse Square Law 2.8 Directivity Factor 2.9 Ohm’s Law 2.10 A Decibel Is a Decibel Is a Decibel 2.11 Older References 2.12 The Equivalent Level (LEQ) in Noise Measurements 2.13 Combining Decibels 2.14 Combining Voltage 2.15 Using the Log Charts 2.16 Finding the Logarithm of a Number to Any Base 2.17 Semitone Intervals 2.18 System Gain Changes 2.19 The VU and the VI Instrument 2.20 Calculating the Number of Decades in a Frequency Span 2.21 Deflection of the Eardrum at Various Sound Levels 2.22 The Phon 2.23 The Tempered Scale 2.24 Measuring Distortion 2.25 The Acoustical Meaning of Harmonic Distortion 2.26 Playback Systems in Studios 2.27 Decibels and Percentages 2.28 Summary Bibliography Chapter 3 Acoustic Environment 3.1 The Acoustic Environment 3.2 Inverse Square Law 3.3 Atmospheric Absorption 3.4 Velocity of Sound 3.5 Temperature-Dependent Velocity 3.6 The Effect of Altitude on the Velocity of Sound in Air 3.7 Typical Wavelengths 3.8 Doppler Effect 3.9 Reflection and Refraction 3.10 Effect of a Space Heater on Flutter Echo 3.11 Absorption 3.12 Classifying Sound Fields 3.13 The Acoustic Environment Indoors 3.14 Conclusion II. Audio Electronics Chapter 4 Components 4.1 Building Block Components Chapter 5 Power supply design 5.1 High Power Systems 5.2. Solid State Rectifiers 5.3. Music Power 5.4. Influence of Signal Type on Power Supply Design 5.5. High Current Power Supply Systems 5.6. Half-wave and Full-wave Rectification 5.7. DC Supply Line Ripple Rejection 5.8. Voltage Regulator Systems 5.9. Series Regulator Layouts 5.10. Over-current Protection 5.11. Integrated Circuit (Three Terminal) Voltage Regulator ICs 5.12. Typical Contemporary Commercial Practice 5.13. Battery Supplies 5.14. Switch-mode Power Supplies

III Preamplifiers and Amplifiers Chapter 6 Introduction to Audio Amplification CHAPTER 7 Preamplifiers and input signals 7.1 REQUIREMENTS 7.2 SIGNAL VOLTAGE AND IMPEDANCE LEVELS 7.3 GRAMOPHONE PICK-UP INPUTS 7.4 INPUT CIRCUITRY 7.5 MOVING COIL PU HEAD AMPLIFIER DESIGN 7.6 CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS 7.7 INPUT CONNECTIONS 7.8 INPUT SWITCHING 7.9 Voltage amplifiers and controls 7.10 PREAMPLIFIER STAGES 7.11 LINEARITY 7.12 NOISE LEVELS 7.13 OUTPUT VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS 7.14 VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER DESIGN 7.15 CONSTANT-CURRENT SOURCES AND 'CURRENT MIRRORS' 7.16 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS 7.17 AUDIBILITY OF DISTORTION 7.18 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 7.19 CONTROLS Chapter 8 Interfacing and processing 8.1 The Input 8.2 RF filtration 8.3 The balanced input 8.4 Sub-sonic protection and high-pass filtering 8.5 Damageprotection 8.6 What are process functions? 8.7 Computer control Chapter 9 Audio amplifiers 9.1. Junction Transistors 9.2. Control of Operating Bias 9.3. Stage Gain 9.4. Basic Junction Transistor Circuit Configurations 9.5. Emitter-follower Systems 9.6. Thermal Dissipation Limits 9.6. Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) 9.7. Insulated Gate FETs (MOSFETs) 9.8. Power BJTs vs. Power MOSFETs as Amplifier Output Devices 9.9. U and D MOSFETs 9.10. Useful Circuit Components 9.11. Circuit Oddments 9.12. Slew Rate Limiting Chapter 10 Audio amplifier performance 10.1 A brief history of amplifiers 10.2 Amplifier architectures 10.3 The three-stage architecture 10.4 Power amplifier classes 10.5 AC- and DC-coupled amplifiers 10.6 Negative feedback in power amplifiers References Chapter 11. Valve (tube-based) amplifiers 11.1 Valves or Vacuum Tubes 11.2 Solid State Devices 11.3 VALVE AUDIO AMPLIFIER LAYOUTS 11.4 Single-ended vs. Push–pull Operation 11.5 Phase Splitters 11.6 Output Stages 11.7 Output (Load-matching) Transformer 11.8 Effect of Output Load Impedance 11.9 Available Output Power Chapter 12 Negative feedback 12.1 Amplifier stability and NFB 12.2 Maximising the NFB 12.3 Maximising linearity before feedback 12.4 References Chapter 13 Noise and grounding 13.1. Audio amplifier PCB design 13.2. Amplifier grounding 13.3. Ground loops: how they work and how to deal with them 13.4 Class I and Class II 13.5 Mechanical layout and design considerations Part IV Digital Audio Chapter 14 Digital audio fundamentals 14.1 Audio as data 14.2 What is an audio signal? 14.3 Why binary? 14.4 Why digital? 14.5 Some digital audio processes outlined 14.6 Time compression and expansion 14.7 Error correction and concealment 14.8 Channel coding 14.9 Audio compression 14.10 Disk-based recording 14.11 Rotary-head digital recorders 14.12 Digital audio broadcasting 14.13 Networks Chapter 15 Representation of Audio Signals 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Analogue and Digital 15.3 Elementary Logical Processes 15.4 The Significance of Bits and Bobs 15.5 Transmitting Digital Signals 15.6 The Analogue Audio Waveform 15.7 Arithmetic 15.8 Digital Filtering 15.9 Other Binary Operations 15.10 Sampling and Quantising 15.12 Transform and Masking Coders 15.13 Bibliography 15.14 Other titles of interest Chapter 16.Compact disc 16.1 PROBLEMS WITH DIGITAL ENCODING 16.2 THE RECORD-REPLAY SYSTEM 16.3 THE REPLAY SYSTEM 16.4 ERROR CORRECTION Chapter 17 Digital audio recording basics 17.1 Types of Media 17.2 Recording Media Compared 17.3 Some Digital Audio Processes Outlined 17.4 Hard Disc Recorders 17.5 The PCM Adaptor 17.6 An Open Reel Digital Recorder 17.7 Rotary Head Digital Recorders 17.8 Digital Compact Cassette 17.9 Editing Digital Audio Tape Chapter 18 Digital audio interfaces 18.1 Digital audio interfaces 18.2 MADI (AES10–1991) serial multi-channel audio digital interface Chapter 19 Data compression 19.1 Lossless compression 19.2 Intermediate compression systems 19.3 Psychoacoustic masking systems 19.4 MPEG layer 1 compression (PASC) 19.5 MPEG layer 2 audio coding (MUSICAM) 19.6 MPEG layer 3 19.7 MPEG-4 19.8 Digital audio production Chapter 20 Digital audio production 20.1 Digital audio workstations (DAWs) 20.2 Audio data files 20.3 Sound cards 20.4 PCI bus versus ISA bus 20.5 Disks and other peripheral hardware 20.6 Hard drive interface standards 20.7 Digital noise generation – chain-code generators 20.8 Notes

Chapter 21 Other Digital Audio Devices 21.1 Video Recorders 21.2 HDCD 21.3 CD Writers 21.4 MPEG Systems 21.5 MP3 21.6 Transcribing a Recording by Computer 21.7 WAV Onwards 21.8 DAM CD 21.9 DVD and Audio V. Microphone and Loudspeaker Technology Chapter 22 Microphone technology 22.1 Microphone Sensitivity 22.2 Microphone Selection 22.3 Nature of Response and Directional Characteristics 22.3 Wireless Microphones 22.4 Microphone Connectors, Cables, and Phantom Power 22.5 Measurement Microphones 22.6 Bibliography 29.17. References Chapter 23 Loudspeakers 23.1 Radiation of Sound 23.2 Characteristic Impedance 23.3 Radiation Impedance 23.4 Radiation from a Piston 23.5 Directivity 23.6. Sound Pressure Produced at Distance r 23.6. Electrical Analogue 23.7. Diaphragm/Suspension Assembly 23.8. Diaphragm Size 23.9. Diaphragm Profile 23.10. Straight-Sided Cones 23.11 Material 23.12 Soft Domes 23.13 Suspensions 23.14 Voice Coil 23.15 Moving Coil Loudspeaker 23.16 Motional Impedance Chapter 24 Loudspeaker enclosures 24.1 Loudspeakers 24.2 The interrelation of components Chapter 25 Headphones 25.1 A Brief History 25.2 Pros and Cons of Headphone Listening 25.3 Headphone Types 25.4 Basic Headphone Types 25.5 Measuring Headphones 25.6 The Future Part VI. Sound Reproduction Systems Chapter 26 Tape Recording 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Magnetic theory 26.3 The physics of magnetic recording 26.4 Bias 26.5 Equalisation 26.6 Tape speed 26.7 Speed stability 26.8 Recording formats – analogue machines Chapter 27 Recording consoles 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Standard levels and level meters 27.3 Standard operating levels and line-up tones 27.4 Digital line-up 27.5 Sound mixer architecture and circuit blocks 27.6 Audio mixer circuitry 27.7 Mixer automation 27.8 Digital consoles 27.9 Note Chapter 28 Video synchronization 28.1. Introduction 28.2. Persistence of vision 28.3. Cathode ray tube and raster scanning 28.4. Television signal 28.5. Colour perception 28.6. Colour television 28.7. Analogue video interfaces 28.8. Digital video 28.9. Embedded digital audio in the digital video interface 28.10. Timecode 28.11. Notes Chapter 29 Room acoustics 29.1 Introduction 29.2 Noise Control 29.3 Studio and Control Room Acoustics Reference Part VII Audio Test and Measurement CHAPTER 30 Fundamentals and instruments 30.1 INSTRUMENT TYPES 30.2 SIGNAL GENERATORS 30.3 ALTERNATIVE WAVEFORM TYPES 30.4 DISTORTION MEASUREMENT



The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!

Audio engineers need to master a wide area of topics in order to excel. The Audio Engineering Know It All covers every angle, including digital signal processing, power supply design, microphone and loudspeaker technology as well as audio compression.

Key Features

• A 360-degree view from our best-selling authors • Includes such topics as fundamentals, compression, and test and measurement • The ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume


Electronics Engineers; Audio Engineers and Technicians


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About the Authors

Douglas Self Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Douglas Self has a worldwide reputation as a leading authority on audio amplifier design, but it is perhaps less well known that he has devoted a good deal of study to small-signal circuitry, including many years as the chief design engineer at one of the major mixing console manufacturers, where his achievements included winning a Design Council Award. His rigorous, skeptical, and thoroughly practical approach to design has been applied to the small signal area as well, and some of the results to be found in this book. Senior designer of high-end audio amplifiers and contributor to Electronics World magazine, Douglas has worked with many top audio names, including Cambridge Audio, TAG-McLaren Audio, and Soundcraft Electronics.

Ben Duncan Author

Ben Duncan is well known to many users of audio power amplifiers around the world, both professional and domestic, through his hundreds of articles, reviews and research papers on music technology in the UK and US press, and through his part in creating several notable professional power amplifiers.Since 1977, he has been involved in the design of over 70 innovative, high-end audio products used by recording and broadcast studios, on stages, in clubs and by the most critical domestic listeners - as well as creating bespoke equipment for top musicians. Born in London, he has travelled widely but has lived mainly in Lincolnshire, home of his family for over 150 years. Outside a wide spectrum of music and festivals his interests include managing an organic garden, woodland and nature reserve; industrial archaeology, historic building restoration, psychic research, and 20th century political, social and engineering history. He is twice co-author of the book Rock Hardware in which he has chronicled the history of rock’n’roll PA.

Affiliations and Expertise

International consultant in high quality Audio Electronics, Pro & Hi-Fi; and prolific equipment designer. See Ben Duncan Research websites.

Ian Sinclair Author

Ian Sinclair was born in 1932 in Tayport, Fife, and graduated from the University of St. Andrews in 1956. In that year, he joined the English Electric Valve Co. in Chelmsford, Essex, to work on the design of specialised cathode-ray tubes, and later on small transmitting valves and TV transmitting tubes. In 1966, he became an assistant lecturer at Hornchurch Technical College, and in 1967 joined the staff of Braintree College of F.E. as a lecturer. His first book, “Understanding Electronic Components” was published in 1972, and he has been writing ever since, particularly for the novice in Electronics or Computing. The interest in computing arose after seeing a Tandy TRS80 in San Francisco in 1977, and of his 204 published books, about half have been on computing topics, starting with a guide to Microsoft Basic on the TRS80 in 1979. He left teaching in 1984 to concentrate entirely on writing, and has also gained experience in computer typesetting, particularly for mathematical texts. He has recently visited Seattle to see Microsoft at work, and to remind them that he has been using Microsoft products longer than most Microsoft employees can remember. Ian Sinclair is the author of the following Made Simple books: Lotus 1-2-3- (2.4 DOS version) MS-DOS (up to version 6.22) PagePlus for Windows 3.1 Hard drives He is also the author of many other books published under our Newnes imprint.Visit Ian's website at

Affiliations and Expertise

Long-standing technical author, UK

Richard Brice Author

Commercial Director of Miranda Technologies, a global company specialising in television and channel-branding equipment. Worked previously as a senior designer in several of Britain’s top broadcast companies. Previously Richard worked for Pro Bel where he designed the Freeway product series. For this he was cited in Post Update magazine as “one of the twelve disciples of TV design”. Richard was also responsible for the stereo enhancement system `Francinstien’ and the ‘OM’ three-dimensional stereo system. Both these systems have been used on many records, tapes and CDs as well as on television and film scores.Richard is author of Multimedia and Virtual Reality, Music Engineering and Newnes Guide to Digital Television.Director, Electric Perception Ltd

Affiliations and Expertise

Commercial Director of Miranda Technologies, a global company specialising in television and channel-branding equipment in Saint-Laurent, Canada

John Linsley Hood Author

John Linsley Hood (1925-2004) was head of the electronics research laboratories at British cellophane, for nearly 25 years. He worked on many instrumentation projects including width gauges and moisture meters, and made several inventions which were patented under the Cellophane name. Prior to his work at British Cellophane he worked in the electronics laboratory of the Department of Atomic Energy at Sellafield, Cumbria. He studied at Reading University after serving in the military as a radar mechanic. Linsley Hood published more than 30 technical feature articles in Wireless World magazine and its later incarnation Electronics World. He also contributed to numerous magazines including Electronics Today.

Affiliations and Expertise

(1925-2004) Independent Technical Author

Andrew Singmin Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Most recently Quality Assurance Manager at Accelerix in Ottawa, Canada. Currently working as an ISO 9000 Quality Assurance Manager for Conexant Systems Inc. in Ottawa, Canada.Over 25 years of experience in electronics/semiconductor device technology.Has written for Popular Electronics and the Electronics Handbook, as well asBeginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, 2E and Beginning Digital Electronics Through Projects, Modern Electronics Soldering Techniques,Dictionary of Modern Electronics Technology, and Practical Audio Amplifiercircuit Projects

Don Davis Author

Don Davis and his wife, Carolyn, founded Synergetic Audio Concepts in 1972, he later retired in 1995. Don is a Senior member of the IEEE, Fellow of the AES and has received the Heyser Award, Life Time Achievement Award from NSCA and from USITT, Recognition for participation in the Brussels World Fair 1958 from the U.S. Dept. of State, and for the U.S. Exhibition in Moscow in 1959.

Affiliations and Expertise

Don Davis and his wife, Carolyn, founded Synergetic Audio Concepts in 1972, retired in 1995. Don is a Senior member of the IEEE, Fellow of the AES and has received the Heyser Award, Life Time Achievement Award from NSCA and from USITT, Recognition for participation in the Brussels World Fair 1958 from the U.S. Dept. of State, and for the U.S. Exhibition in Moscow in 1959.

Eugene Patronis Author

Eugene Patronis is Professor of Physics Emeritus at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. He has also served as an industrial and governmental consultant in the fields of acoustics and electronics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Eugene Patronis is Professor of Physics Emeritus at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. He has also served as an industrial and governmental consultant in the fields of acoustics and electronics.

John Watkinson Author

John Watkinson is an independent international consultant in advanced applications of electronics to audiovisual and avionics systems. He is a Fellow of the AES, a member of the Society of Expert Witnesses, and the British Computer Society and is a chartered information systems practitioner. He presents lectures, seminars and training courses worldwide. He is the author of many other Elsevier books, including The Art of DigitalVideo, An Introduction to Digital Video, Convergence in Broadcast and Communications Media, Television Fundamentals and The Art of the Helicopter.

Affiliations and Expertise

Reading, UK International consultant in audio, video and data recording.