Audio Electronics

Audio Electronics

1st Edition - April 4, 1995

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  • Author: John Linsley Hood
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140803

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Audio Electronics provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of audio electronics. This book discusses the parallel development in the various transducers and interface devices used to generate and reproduce electrical signals. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic method of digitally encoding an analog signal that entails repetitively sampling the input signal at sufficiently brief intervals. This text then examines the major attraction of the FM broadcasting system to allow the transmission of a high quality stereo signal without significant degradation of audio quality. Other chapters consider the conventional practice to interpose a versatile pre-amplifier unit between the power amplifier and the external signal sources. This book discusses as well the requirements for voltage gain stages in both audio amplifiers and integrated-circuit operational amplifiers. The final chapter deals with the significance of the power supply unit. This book is a valuable resource for professional recording and audio engineers.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1 Tape Recording

    The Basic System

    Magnetic Tape

    Tape Coatings

    Tape Backing Materials

    Tape Thicknesses

    Tape Widths

    The Recording Process

    Causes of Non-Uniform Frequency Response

    Influence of HF Bias

    Head Gap Effects

    Pole-Piece Contour Effects

    Effect of Tape Speed

    Record/Replay Equalisation

    Pre- and De-Emphasis

    Frequency Correction Standards

    Head Design

    Magnetic Materials

    Tape Erasure

    Recording Track Dimensions

    HF Bias

    Basic Bias Requirements

    Bias Frequency

    Bias Waveform

    Optimum Bias Level

    Maximum Output Level (MOL)


    Harmonic Distortion

    Noise Level

    Saturation Output Level (SOL)

    Bias Level Setting

    The Tape Transport Mechanism

    Transient Performance

    Tape Noise

    Electronic Circuit Design

    Record/Replay Circuit Design

    Schematic Layout




    Replay Equalisation

    Bias Oscillator Circuits

    The Record Amplifier

    Input/Output Stage Design

    Recording Level Indication

    Tape Drive Motor Speed Control

    Professional Recording Equipment

    General Description

    Mechanical Aspects

    Electrical Design

    Multi-Track Machines

    Digital Recording Systems

    PCM Encoding

    Bandwidth Requirements

    Analogue vs. Digital Performance


    Domestic Equipment

    Copy Protection (SCMS)

    Domestic Systems

    RDAT, SDAT, CDR, Mini-Disc, DCC

    2 Tuners and Radio Receivers


    Basic Requirements

    Transmitter Radiation Pattern

    The Influence of the Ionosphere

    Critical Frequency

    Classification of Radio Spectrum

    VHF/SHF Effects

    Why VHF Transmissions?

    Broadcast Band Allocations

    Choice of Broadcasting Frequency

    AM or FM?

    Modulation Systems

    Bandwidth Requirements

    FM Broadcast Standards

    Stereo Encoding/Decoding

    GE/Zenith 'Pilot Tone' System

    Decoder Systems

    PCM Programme Distribution System

    HF Pre-Emphasis

    Supplementary Broadcast Signals

    Alternative Transmission Methods

    SSB Broadcasting

    Radio Receiver Design

    Tuned Circuit Characteristics

    SAW Filters

    Superhet Receiver



    Crystal Control

    Barlow-Wadley Loop

    Frequency Synthesis

    Phase-Locked Loop

    Automatic Frequency Control

    Frequency Meter Display

    FM Linearity

    FM Demodulator Types

    AM Linearity

    AM Demodulator Systems

    Circuit Design

    New Developments


    Broadcast Signal Characteristics

    Radio Data System (RDS)

    3 Preamplifiers and Input Signals


    Signal Voltage and Impedance Levels

    Gramophone Pick-Up Inputs

    Ceramic Cartridges

    DIN Input Connections

    MM and Variable Reluctance Cartridges

    RIAA Equalisation

    MC Cartridges

    Input Circuitry

    Moving Coil PU Head Amplifier Design

    Circuit Arrangements

    Noise Levels

    Low Noise IC op. amps

    Input Connections

    Input Switching

    Bipolar Transistor

    FET Diode

    4 Voltage Amplifiers and Controls

    Preamplifier Stages


    Bipolar Transistors

    Field Effect Devices

    MOSFETs U, V and T Types

    MOSFET Breakdown

    Noise Levels

    Output Voltage Characteristics

    Voltage Amplifier Design

    Constant-Current Sources and 'Current Mirrors'

    Performance Standards

    Audibility of Distortion

    Transient Defects

    TID and Slew-Rate Limiting

    Spurious Signals and Interference

    General Design Considerations


    Gain Controls

    Tone Controls



    Clapham Junction


    Graphic Equaliser

    Quad Tilt Control

    Channel Balance and Separation Controls

    Filter Circuitry

    5 Power Output Stages

    Valve Amplifier Designs

    Early Transistor Circuits

    Listener Fatigue and Crossover Distortion

    The LIN Circuit

    Improved Transistor Amplifier Designs

    Power MOSFETs

    Operating Characteristics;

    V and U Types

    Output Transistor Protection

    Safe Operating Area (SOAR)

    Power Output and Power Dissipation

    General Design Considerations

    Bode Plot

    Slew-Rate Limiting and TID

    HF Stabilisation

    Advanced Amplifier Designs

    Stabilised Power Supplies

    Output Stage Configurations

    Alternative Design Approaches

    The 'Blomley' Circuit

    The 'Quad' Current Dumping Amplifier

    Feed-Forward Systems

    The 'Sandman' Circuit

    Contemporary Amplifier Design Practice

    The 'Technics' SE-A100 Circuit

    Sound Quality and Specifications

    Design Compromises

    Measurement Systems


    6 The Compact Disc and Digital Audio

    Why Use Digital Techniques?

    Problems with Digital Encoding

    Signal Degradation During Copying

    Pulse Code Modulation

    Quantisation Errors

    Encoding Resolution

    Bandwidth and Sampling Frequency


    Error Detection and Correction



    PCM spectrum

    The Record-Replay System

    Recording System Layout

    Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC)

    The Replay System

    Physical Characteristics

    Optical Readout

    CD Performance and Disc Statistics

    Two-Beam vs. Three-Beam Readout Methods

    0-1 Digit Generation

    Replay Electronics

    Zero-Signal Muting

    Eight to Fourteen Modulation

    Digital to Analogue Conversion

    Precision Required

    Dynamic Element Matching

    Digital Filtering and Oversampling

    Finite Impulse Response Filters

    Transversal Filters

    Attenuation Characteristics

    Interpolation of Sample Values


    Effect on Resolution

    The Bitstream Process

    Low Resolution Decoding

    Noise Shaping

    Error Correction

    Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC) Techniques

    Error Detection

    Addition of Parity Bits


    Faulty Bit/Word Replacement

    CIRC Performance

    7 Test Instruments and Measurements

    Instrument Types

    Distortion Types

    Measurements vs. Subjective Testing

    Types of Test Instruments

    Signal Generators

    Sine Wave Oscillators

    Wien Bridge Oscillators

    Required Frequency Range

    Waveform Purity Requirements

    Amplitude Stabilisation

    Square-Wave Generation

    Output Settling Time

    Very Low Distortion Circuitry

    Parallel-T Oscillator Designs

    Digital Waveform Synthesis

    Frequency Stable Systems

    Phase-Locked Loop Techniques

    Function Generators

    Alternative Waveform Types

    Square-Wave Testing

    Distortion Measurement

    THD Meters

    Intermodulation Distortion Measurement

    Spectrum Analysis

    FFT Analysis


    Method of Operation

    Sensitivity and Scan Speeds

    Multiple Trace Displays

    Time-Base Synchronisation

    External X-Axis Inputs

    Lissajoux Figures

    Use with Stereo Signals

    X-Axis Signal Outputs

    Digital Storage Types


    8 Loudspeaker Crossover Systems

    Why Necessary?

    Cone Design

    Optimum Frequency Span for LS Drivers

    Effects of LS Diaphragm Flexure

    Acoustic Mismatch at Diaphragm Surround

    LS Diaphragm Types

    Flat Piston vs. Conical Form

    Rigid Cone Systems

    Coil Attachment and Magnet Characteristics

    Soundwave Dispersion

    Crossover System Design

    Effects of Output Superposition

    Crossover Component Types

    LS Output Equalisation

    Active Crossover Systems

    Active Filter Design

    Bi-Amplification and Tri-Amplification

    Bi-Wiring and Tri-Wiring

    Loudspeaker Connecting Cables

    9 Power Supplies

    The Importance of the Power Supply Unit

    Rejection of Hum and Noise

    Single-Ended and Balanced Systems

    Circuit Layouts

    Valve vs. Solid State Rectifiers

    Effect of Size of Reservoir Capacitor

    Peak Charging Currents

    Circuit Problems

    Full-Wave Rectifier Systems

    Half-Wave vs. Full-Wave Rectification

    Rectifier Circuits

    Reservoir Capacitor Optimum Size

    Transformer Types and Power Ratings

    Output DC Voltage

    Stacked Lamination vs. Toroidal Types

    Stabilised PSU Circuits

    Zener Diodes

    Bandgap Reference Sources

    Three-Terminal PSU ICs

    Effect of PSU on Musical Performance

    'Music Power' Ratings

    Output Circuit Protection

    Higher Power Regulator Layouts

    Shunt vs. Series Systems

    PSU Output Impedance

    Designs in Commercial Equipment

    Commercial Power amp. PSUs

    Output Source Impedance and Noise

    Battery Supplies

    Transformer Noise and Stray Magnetic Fields


Product details

  • No. of pages: 364
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Newnes 1995
  • Published: April 4, 1995
  • Imprint: Newnes
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140803

About the Author

John Linsley Hood

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