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Audio Electronics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750621816, 9781483140803

Audio Electronics

1st Edition

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Author: John Linsley Hood
eBook ISBN: 9781483140803
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 4th April 1995
Page Count: 364
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Audio Electronics provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of audio electronics. This book discusses the parallel development in the various transducers and interface devices used to generate and reproduce electrical signals.

Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic method of digitally encoding an analog signal that entails repetitively sampling the input signal at sufficiently brief intervals. This text then examines the major attraction of the FM broadcasting system to allow the transmission of a high quality stereo signal without significant degradation of audio quality. Other chapters consider the conventional practice to interpose a versatile pre-amplifier unit between the power amplifier and the external signal sources. This book discusses as well the requirements for voltage gain stages in both audio amplifiers and integrated-circuit operational amplifiers. The final chapter deals with the significance of the power supply unit.

This book is a valuable resource for professional recording and audio engineers.

Table of Contents


1 Tape Recording

The Basic System

Magnetic Tape

Tape Coatings

Tape Backing Materials

Tape Thicknesses

Tape Widths

The Recording Process

Causes of Non-Uniform Frequency Response

Influence of HF Bias

Head Gap Effects

Pole-Piece Contour Effects

Effect of Tape Speed

Record/Replay Equalisation

Pre- and De-Emphasis

Frequency Correction Standards

Head Design

Magnetic Materials

Tape Erasure

Recording Track Dimensions

HF Bias

Basic Bias Requirements

Bias Frequency

Bias Waveform

Optimum Bias Level

Maximum Output Level (MOL)


Harmonic Distortion

Noise Level

Saturation Output Level (SOL)

Bias Level Setting

The Tape Transport Mechanism

Transient Performance

Tape Noise

Electronic Circuit Design

Record/Replay Circuit Design

Schematic Layout




Replay Equalisation

Bias Oscillator Circuits

The Record Amplifier

Input/Output Stage Design

Recording Level Indication

Tape Drive Motor Speed Control

Professional Recording Equipment

General Description

Mechanical Aspects

Electrical Design

Multi-Track Machines

Digital Recording Systems

PCM Encoding

Bandwidth Requirements

Analogue vs. Digital Performance


Domestic Equipment

Copy Protection (SCMS)

Domestic Systems


2 Tuners and Radio Receivers


Basic Requirements

Transmitter Radiation Pattern

The Influence of the Ionosphere

Critical Frequency

Classification of Radio Spectrum

VHF/SHF Effects

Why VHF Transmissions?

Broadcast Band Allocations

Choice of Broadcasting Frequency

AM or FM?

Modulation Systems

Bandwidth Requirements

FM Broadcast Standards

Stereo Encoding/Decoding

GE/Zenith 'Pilot Tone' System

Decoder Systems

PCM Programme Distribution System

HF Pre-Emphasis

Supplementary Broadcast Signals

Alternative Transmission Methods

SSB Broadcasting

Radio Receiver Design

Tuned Circuit Characteristics

SAW Filters

Superhet Receiver



Crystal Control

Barlow-Wadley Loop

Frequency Synthesis

Phase-Locked Loop

Automatic Frequency Control

Frequency Meter Display

FM Linearity

FM Demodulator Types

AM Linearity

AM Demodulator Systems

Circuit Design

New Developments


Broadcast Signal Characteristics

Radio Data System (RDS)

3 Preamplifiers and Input Signals


Signal Voltage and Impedance Levels

Gramophone Pick-Up Inputs

Ceramic Cartridges

DIN Input Connections

MM and Variable Reluctance Cartridges

RIAA Equalisation

MC Cartridges

Input Circuitry

Moving Coil PU Head Amplifier Design

Circuit Arrangements

Noise Levels

Low Noise IC op. amps

Input Connections

Input Switching

Bipolar Transistor

FET Diode

4 Voltage Amplifiers and Controls

Preamplifier Stages


Bipolar Transistors

Field Effect Devices

MOSFETs U, V and T Types

MOSFET Breakdown

Noise Levels

Output Voltage Characteristics

Voltage Amplifier Design

Constant-Current Sources and 'Current Mirrors'

Performance Standards

Audibility of Distortion

Transient Defects

TID and Slew-Rate Limiting

Spurious Signals and Interference

General Design Considerations


Gain Controls

Tone Controls



Clapham Junction


Graphic Equaliser

Quad Tilt Control

Channel Balance and Separation Controls

Filter Circuitry

5 Power Output Stages

Valve Amplifier Designs

Early Transistor Circuits

Listener Fatigue and Crossover Distortion

The LIN Circuit

Improved Transistor Amplifier Designs


Operating Characteristics;

V and U Types

Output Transistor Protection

Safe Operating Area (SOAR)

Power Output and Power Dissipation

General Design Considerations

Bode Plot

Slew-Rate Limiting and TID

HF Stabilisation

Advanced Amplifier Designs

Stabilised Power Supplies

Output Stage Configurations

Alternative Design Approaches

The 'Blomley' Circuit

The 'Quad' Current Dumping Amplifier

Feed-Forward Systems

The 'Sandman' Circuit

Contemporary Amplifier Design Practice

The 'Technics' SE-A100 Circuit

Sound Quality and Specifications

Design Compromises

Measurement Systems


6 The Compact Disc and Digital Audio

Why Use Digital Techniques?

Problems with Digital Encoding

Signal Degradation During Copying

Pulse Code Modulation

Quantisation Errors

Encoding Resolution

Bandwidth and Sampling Frequency


Error Detection and Correction



PCM spectrum

The Record-Replay System

Recording System Layout

Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC)

The Replay System

Physical Characteristics

Optical Readout

CD Performance and Disc Statistics

Two-Beam vs. Three-Beam Readout Methods

0-1 Digit Generation

Replay Electronics

Zero-Signal Muting

Eight to Fourteen Modulation

Digital to Analogue Conversion

Precision Required

Dynamic Element Matching

Digital Filtering and Oversampling

Finite Impulse Response Filters

Transversal Filters

Attenuation Characteristics

Interpolation of Sample Values


Effect on Resolution

The Bitstream Process

Low Resolution Decoding

Noise Shaping

Error Correction

Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC) Techniques

Error Detection

Addition of Parity Bits


Faulty Bit/Word Replacement

CIRC Performance

7 Test Instruments and Measurements

Instrument Types

Distortion Types

Measurements vs. Subjective Testing

Types of Test Instruments

Signal Generators

Sine Wave Oscillators

Wien Bridge Oscillators

Required Frequency Range

Waveform Purity Requirements

Amplitude Stabilisation

Square-Wave Generation

Output Settling Time

Very Low Distortion Circuitry

Parallel-T Oscillator Designs

Digital Waveform Synthesis

Frequency Stable Systems

Phase-Locked Loop Techniques

Function Generators

Alternative Waveform Types

Square-Wave Testing

Distortion Measurement

THD Meters

Intermodulation Distortion Measurement

Spectrum Analysis

FFT Analysis


Method of Operation

Sensitivity and Scan Speeds

Multiple Trace Displays

Time-Base Synchronisation

External X-Axis Inputs

Lissajoux Figures

Use with Stereo Signals

X-Axis Signal Outputs

Digital Storage Types


8 Loudspeaker Crossover Systems

Why Necessary?

Cone Design

Optimum Frequency Span for LS Drivers

Effects of LS Diaphragm Flexure

Acoustic Mismatch at Diaphragm Surround

LS Diaphragm Types

Flat Piston vs. Conical Form

Rigid Cone Systems

Coil Attachment and Magnet Characteristics

Soundwave Dispersion

Crossover System Design

Effects of Output Superposition

Crossover Component Types

LS Output Equalisation

Active Crossover Systems

Active Filter Design

Bi-Amplification and Tri-Amplification

Bi-Wiring and Tri-Wiring

Loudspeaker Connecting Cables

9 Power Supplies

The Importance of the Power Supply Unit

Rejection of Hum and Noise

Single-Ended and Balanced Systems

Circuit Layouts

Valve vs. Solid State Rectifiers

Effect of Size of Reservoir Capacitor

Peak Charging Currents

Circuit Problems

Full-Wave Rectifier Systems

Half-Wave vs. Full-Wave Rectification

Rectifier Circuits

Reservoir Capacitor Optimum Size

Transformer Types and Power Ratings

Output DC Voltage

Stacked Lamination vs. Toroidal Types

Stabilised PSU Circuits

Zener Diodes

Bandgap Reference Sources

Three-Terminal PSU ICs

Effect of PSU on Musical Performance

'Music Power' Ratings

Output Circuit Protection

Higher Power Regulator Layouts

Shunt vs. Series Systems

PSU Output Impedance

Designs in Commercial Equipment

Commercial Power amp. PSUs

Output Source Impedance and Noise

Battery Supplies

Transformer Noise and Stray Magnetic Fields



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© Newnes 1995
4th April 1995
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About the Author

John Linsley Hood

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