Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081033869, 9781483140209

Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry

1st Edition

Atomic Theory and Structure of the Atom

Authors: T. A. H. Peacocke
Editors: J. E. Spice
eBook ISBN: 9781483140209
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 160
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Description

Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry, Volume 1: Atomic Theory and Structure of the Atom presents the developments in classical atomic chemistry in the 19th century. This book discusses the atomic theory in terms of existing ideas on nuclear structure and the wave mechanics of electrons in atoms.

Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the origin of the atomic theory. This text then explores Berzelius's atomic weight tables. Other chapters consider Dalton's conception of an atom as a hard dense sphere. This book discusses as well the significant results of the simple wave mechanical treatment. The final chapter deals with the determination of the Avogadro's number, which enabled the actual masses of atoms and molecules to be determined.

This book is a valuable resource for atomic physicists, chemists, and research workers. First-year university students who are taking chemistry as a subsidiary subject will also find this book useful.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

1 Classical Atomic Theory

The Origin of the Atomic Theory

Dalton

The Controversy of Proust and Berthollet, Daltonide and Berthollide Compounds

The Laws of Chemical Combination and the Atomic Theory

Gay Lussac

Avogadro

Berzelius

Dumas

Cannizaro

2 The Classification of the Elements

Döbereiner and the Law of Triads

Newlands and the Law of Octaves

The Periodic Law, Mendele'ef and Lothar Meyer

Comparison of "Ekasilicon" with Germanium

Atomic Volume

Mendele'ef's Periodic Table

Discussion of the Main Features of the Table

Oxidation State

3 Atoms and Electrons

The Brownian Movement

The Conduction of Electricity Through Gases

Cathode Rays and X-Rays

Positive Rays

Thomson's Work on the Determination of E/M for Cathode Rays

E/M with a Transverse Magnetic Field only

E/M with the Fine Beam Tube

The Mass of the Electron

Townsend's Determination of e

Millikan's Determination of e

The Measurement of Molecular and Atomic Radii

(i) The Van de Waals Equation

(ii) Langmuir's Work with Surface Films

(iii) X-Ray Diffraction

The Determination of the Avogadro Number

4 Atomic Structure

The Thomson Model

The Scattering of A-Particles by Gold Foil

Rutherford's Nuclear Model

Moseley's Work on the Measurement of X-Ray Spectra

The Significance of Atomic Number

Optical Spectra

The Excitation of Spectra

Emission and Absorption Spectra

The Spectrum of Hydrogen

Spectral Series

Fine Structure

Black Body Radiation

Planck's Quantum Theory

Lenard's Observation of the Photoelectric Effect

Einstein's Postulate of the Photon

The Rutherford-Bohr Theory of the Atom

5 The Development of the Wave Mechanical Model of the Atom

Extension of the Böhr Theory

Electronic Structure of the Rutherford-Böhr-Sommerfeld Atom, Pauli's Exclusion Principle, Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels

Ionization Potentials

Ionization Energy Curves

Ionization Energies and Chemical Properties

Weaknesses of the Bohr-Sommerfeld Treatment

De Broglie's Theory of the Dual Nature of Matter

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

The Wave Mechanical Atom

Schrödinger's Theory and Born's Extension

6 The Determination of Atomic Weights

The Development of Standards of Atomic Weight

The Constancy of Atomic Weights

Physical Methods of Determining Atomic Weights, Vapor Density Methods

Limiting Density

The Determination of Atomicity

Reynault's Measurements of Gas Density

Whytlaw-Gray's Development of the Buoyancy Balance

Ramsay and Whytlaw-Gray's Determination of the Atomic Weight of Radon

Thomson's Work on Positive Ray Analysis

Aston's Development of the Mass Spectrograph

Mass Spectrometers

Aston's Packing Fraction

Nuclear Binding Energy

Chemical Methods of Determining Atomic Weights

Dumas's Analysis of Water

Morley's Analysis of Water

Stas's Determination of Atomic Weights

Richards's Determination of Atomic Weights

Appendix 1 To Determine the Potential Energy of an Electron in a Given Orbit of Radius r.

Appendix 2 The Measurement of Lattice Spacing.

Miscellaneous Questions

Answers to Numerical Questions

The Elements Arranged in Alphabetical Order of their Chemical Symbol

Periodic Table of the Elements

Index

1.1. To illustrate the Law of Multiple Proportions by Formation of the Two Chlorides of Copper

1.2. Illustration of Gay-Lussac's Law, by Reacting Ammonia with a Given Volume of Chlorine and Measuring the Residual Volume of Nitrogen

2.1. Properties of Transitional Elements

2.2. Paramagnetism of Liquid Oxygen

2.3. Properties of Hydrogen Chloride in the Anhydrous State

3.1. To View the Brownian Movement

3.2. Millikan's Experiment

3.3. Measurement of the Cross-Section of the Oleic Acid Molecule

5.1. Measurement of the First Ionization Potential of Xenon

6.1. Construction and Use of a Buoyancy Balance

6.2. Determination of the Atomic Weights of Silver, Chlorine and Nitrogen by Gravimetric Analysis


Details

No. of pages:
160
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1967
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483140209

About the Author

T. A. H. Peacocke

About the Editor

J. E. Spice