Atmospheric Pollution - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780080240022, 9781483135847

Atmospheric Pollution

4th Edition

Its History, Origins and Prevention

Authors: A. R. Meetham D. W. Bottom S. Cayton
eBook ISBN: 9781483135847
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1981
Page Count: 244
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Description

Atmospheric Pollution: Its History, Origins and Prevention looks at the history, sources, and controls of air pollution in Britain. Topics covered include the origin of fuel, natural solid fuels such as wood and coal,and manufactured fuels such as coke and alcohol. Mineral oils and gases are also considered, along with industrial boilers and furnaces, combustion and power generation, and the effects of pollution. This book is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of atmospheric pollution, its causes, and prevention. The next six chapters deal with fuels, furnaces, and fires, with emphasis on natural solid fuels including coal, mineral oils and gases such as petroleum and natural gas, and artificial fuels like charcoal, alcohol, and water gas. The remaining chapters focus on the properties of atmospheric pollution and consider atmospheric pollution from engines and furnaces. Radioactive air pollutants are also examined and remedial measures are proposed to control atmospheric pollution. The last chapter is an account of the law in England and in other countries governing atmospheric pollution. This monograph is meant to be of use to all who are professionally interested in atmospheric pollution, from environmental health officers, legislators, and city councilors to architects, engineers, meteorologists, boiler operators and builders.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

Growth of Pollution

Control of Pollution

Scope of the Book

2. Origin of Fuel

Energy and the Origin of the Earth

Fossil Fuels

Energy Value of Fuels

Calorific Value

Gross and Net Calorific Value

World Reserves and Annual Output

3. Natural Solid Fuels

Wood

Wood Charcoal

Peat

The Coal Series

Lignite

Bituminous Coal

Ash and Sulphur in Coal

Washed Coal

Coal Hazards

4. Mineral Oils and Gases

Petroleum

The Refining Process

Characteristics of Fuel Oils

Preparation for Burning: Burners

Vaporizing Burners

Pressure jet Burners

Natural Gas

5. Manufactured Fuels

History

Coke

Coal Tar and Tar Oils

Hydrogenation and Hydrocarbon Synthesis

Liquefaction and Gasification

Alcohol

Manufactured Gaseous Fuels

Historical Note

6. Combustion and Power Generation

Internal Combustion Engine

Atmospheric Pollution from Engines

Cooling Towers

Electricity

Uses of Electricity

Conclusion

7. Industrial Boilers

Coal-Fired Boilers

Vertical Boiler

Lancashire Boiler

Economic Boiler

Thermal Storage Boiler

Water-Tube Boilers

Industrial Hot Water Boilers

Boiler Instruments

Carbon Dioxide

Smoke as an Index of Efficiency

Alternatives to Coal

Mechanical Stokers

Pulverized Fuel

Boiler Availability

Soot Blowing

Fluidized Beds

8. Industrial Furnaces

Group (1) Furnaces

Horizontal Retorts

Coke Ovens

Vertical Retorts

Static Vertical Retorts

Electric Furnaces

Oil Refineries

Group (2) Furnaces

Atmospheric Pollution from Furnaces in Groups (1) and (2)

Group (3) Furnaces

Steel Industry

Clay Industries

Lime and Cement Kilns

Atmospheric Pollution from Furnaces in Group (3)

Smoke in the Steel Industry

Sulphur Dioxide and Grit

Summary

9. Domestic Heat Services

Choosing a Domestic Heating System

Solid Fuel

Central Heating

Gas and Electric Fires

Thermal Storage Electric Heating

Thermal Insulation

Hot Water and Cooking

Coal Economy

10. Atmospheric Pollution

Smoke

Ash

Sulphur Dioxide

Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

Lead, Chlorine and Fluorine Compounds

Pollution from Petroleum Products

Odors

Radioactive Air Pollutants

Pollution from Other Sources

Gases from Chemical Works

Burning Spoilbanks

Incineration of Refuse

The Offensive Trades

Particles

11. Measurement of Atmospheric Pollution

Measurement of Smoke

Smoke Filter

Self-Changing Smoke Filters

Portable Smoke Filters

Weighable Smoke Filter

Measurement of Ash and Other Deposited Pollution

Deposit Gauge

Rapid Surveys of Deposited Matter

Measurement of Sulphur Dioxide

Volumetric Estimation of Sulphur Dioxide

Portable Instruments for Sulphur Dioxide

Automatic Monitoring

Sulphur Dioxide by the Lead Dioxide Instrument

Pollution Roses

Microscopic Examination of Grit

Microscopic Examination of Suspended Matter

Other Pollutants

Measurement of Daylight

Use of Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution

12. Distribution of Pollution

Historical Perspective

Distribution in Britain as a Whole

Deposited Matter

Smoke and Sulphur Dioxide

Distribution within a Town

Deposited Matter

Smoke and Sulphur Dioxide

Recent Surveys

The National Survey of Air Pollution

Smoke

Sulphur Dioxide

Concluding Remarks

13. Variability of Pollution

Changes in Deposited Matter

Yearly Cycle

Changes in Smoke and Sulphur Dioxide

Irregular Variation

Air Pollution Meteorology

Chimney Plumes

Fogs

Constituents of the London Fog, December 1952

Quantities

Heat Balance

Water Balance

Smoke Balance

Sulphur Balance

Halogens

Oxides of Carbon

Ground Level Concentrations

Summary

14. Effects of Pollution

Biological Effects

Health

Threshold Limit Values

Smog Disasters

Mortality Attributed to Smog

Effects on Animals

Effects on Vegetation

Physico-Chemical Effects

Insulators

Metals

Materials

Fog, Visibility and Sunlight

The Cost of Pollution

Conclusion

15. Prevention of Atmospheric Pollution

Prevention of Smoke

Prevention of Ash and Grit

Selection of Fuel

Design and Operation of Furnace

Particulate Removal

Air Conditioning

Prevention of Sulphur Dioxide

Removal of Sulphur from Fuel

Removing of Sulphur Dioxide from Flue Gases

Chimney Height

16. Air Pollution Control—Law and Administration

The United Kingdom System

The Alkali Inspectorate—Structure and Responsibilities

Local Government Administration and Control

The Clean Air Acts

Smoke Emissions

The Control of Chimney Heights

Grit and Dust from Furnaces

Smoke-Control Areas

Air Pollution Legislation throughout the World

Air Pollution Control within the Member States of the European Economic Community

Belgium

Denmark

France

Federal Republic of Germany

Ireland

Italy

Luxembourg

Netherlands

United States of America

Motor Vehicle Pollution

Appendix A. Conversions

Appendix B. British Standards

Bibliography

Index

Details

No. of pages:
244
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483135847

About the Author

A. R. Meetham

D. W. Bottom

S. Cayton