Atlas of Material Damage - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781895198485, 9781895198706

Atlas of Material Damage

1st Edition

Authors: George Wypych
Hardcover ISBN: 9781895198485
eBook ISBN: 9781895198706
Imprint: ChemTec Publishing
Published Date: 22nd February 2012
Page Count: 400
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Product reliability is the major aim of technological know-how. Uninterrupted performance of manufactured products at typical and extreme conditions of its use is the major goal of product development and the most important indicator of material quality.

This book provides information on defect formation and materials damage. The following aspects of material performance are discussed:

1 Effect of composition, morphological features, and structure of different materials on material
performance, durability, and resilience

2 Analysis of causes of material damage and degradation

3 Effect of processing conditions on material damage

4 Effect of combined action of different degradants on industrial products

5 Systematic analysis of existing knowledge regarding the modes of damage and morphology of

damaged material

6 Methods of analysis of material damage

7 Comparison of experiences generated in different sectors of industry regarding the most
frequently encountered failures, reasons for these failures, and potential improvements
preventing future damage

The name "Atlas" was selected to indicate emphasis of the book on illustration with many real examples of damaged products and discussion of causes of damage and potential for material improvements.

Special chapter contains examples of damage encountered in different groups of industrial products. Each group of materials is discussed according to the following breakdown:

1 Examples of damage typically encountered in a group under discussion

2 Results of structural analysis of degradation (e.g., image analysis, surface and bulk mapping by
analytic techniques such as NMR, XPS, thermography, etc.)

3 Credit to the source of images, references, and explanations

4 Conditions under which material was degraded

5 Discussion of morphological features and observations

Key Features

  • Data and images are provided for many material types, making this a hard-working reference guide for engineers working in a range of different market sectors.
  • As well as providing core data, this reference explains the range of test and imaging techniques available, enabling engineers and scientists to take optimal and cost effective decisions.
  • An essential tool for identifying material damage and implementing successful maintenance and replacement regimes.


Engineers: Civil, Mechanical, Materials, Design, Maintenance, Chemical & Process

Industries: construction / civil engineering, automotive / aerospace / transportation, chemical processing, consumer packaging, paints and coatings, petrochemical, pipeline, plastics.

Level: Practicing engineers and technicians, students seeking real-world examples and applied technique

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Material composition, structure, and morphological features

2.1.1 Materials having predominantly homogeneous structure and composition

2.1.2 Heterogeneous materials

2.1.3 Crystalline forms and amorphous regions

2.1.4 Materials containing insoluble additives (e.g., fillers)

2.1.5 Materials containing immiscible phases (e.g., polymer alloys and blends)

2.1.6 Composites

2.1.7 Multi-component layered materials (laminates, coextruded materials, film sandwiches,

coated fabrics)

2.1.8 Material combinations obtained by jointing (joints, fasteners, inclusions)

2.1.9 Foams, porosity

2.1.10 Compressed solids (tablets, sintered materials)

2.1.11 Material surface versus bulk

3 Effect of processing on material structure

3.1 Temperature

3.2 Pressure

3.3 Time

3.4 Viscosity

3.5 Flow rate (shear rate)

3.6 Deformation

3.7 Orientation

3.8 Process related defects

4 Scale of damage – basic concept

4.1 Atomic (breaking interatomic bonds)

4.2 Microscale (micro-imperfections and their effect on damage initiation and growth)

4.3 Macroscale (material property determination, testing and control)

5 Microscopic mechanisms of damage caused by different degradants

5.1 Bulk (mechanical forces)

5.1.1 Elastic-brittle fracture

5.1.2 Elastic-plastic deformation

5.1.3 Time-related damage Fatigue (fretting) Creep Creep-fatigue Thermo-creep

5.1.4 Impact damage

5.1.5 Shear fracture

5.1.6 Compression set

5.1.7 Bending forces

5.1.8 Anisotropic damage

5.2 Electric forces

5.2.1 Tracking

5.2.2 Arcing

5.2.3 Cell deformation

5.2.4 Flooding and drying out (batteries)

5.2.5 Pin-holes

5.2.6 Cracks

5.2.7 Delamination

5.2.8 Surface impurity

5.2.9 Humidity

5.2.10 Temperature

5.3 Surface-initiated damage

5.3.1 Physical forces Thermal treatment Process heat Conditions of performance Infrared Frictional heat Low temperature effects Thermal stresses High energy radiation Ionizing radiation (alpha, beta rays) Gamma rays Laser beams Cosmic rays Plasma Weathering Elution

5.3.2 Mechanical action Frictional wear, gouging, scratching Impact wear Adhesive failure, sliding

5.3.3 Chemical reactions Oxidation Ozone Sulfur dioxide Hydrogen embrittlement Particulate matter Other gaseous corroding substances Solvent crazing

5.4 Biological forces of damage (example of joint action of chemical and biological mechanisms)

5.4.1 Biodegradation and biodeterioration of materials in conditions of their performance and


5.4.2 Effect of body fluids on performance and bioabsorption of polymeric materials in medical


5.4.3 Effect of environment on performance of controlled–release substances in pharmaceutical


5.5 Corrosion (example of joint action of physical and chemical degradants)

5.5.1 Conductive polymers

5.6 Loss of adhesion (example of joint action of mechanical, physical, and chemical forces)

5.7 Further examples of action of combination of degradants

6 Testing in damage assessment and prevention

7 Data on damage of different groups of products


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About the Author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada