Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Material composition, structure, and morphological features

2.1.1 Materials having predominantly homogeneous structure and composition

2.1.2 Heterogeneous materials

2.1.3 Crystalline forms and amorphous regions

2.1.4 Materials containing insoluble additives (e.g., fillers)

2.1.5 Materials containing immiscible phases (e.g., polymer alloys and blends)

2.1.6 Composites

2.1.7 Multi-component layered materials (laminates, coextruded materials, film sandwiches,

coated fabrics)

2.1.8 Material combinations obtained by jointing (joints, fasteners, inclusions)

2.1.9 Foams, porosity

2.1.10 Compressed solids (tablets, sintered materials)

2.1.11 Material surface versus bulk

3 Effect of processing on material structure

3.1 Temperature

3.2 Pressure

3.3 Time

3.4 Viscosity

3.5 Flow rate (shear rate)

3.6 Deformation

3.7 Orientation

3.8 Process related defects

4 Scale of damage – basic concept

4.1 Atomic (breaking interatomic bonds)

4.2 Microscale (micro-imperfections and their effect on damage initiation and growth)

4.3 Macroscale (material property determination, testing and control)

5 Microscopic mechanisms of damage caused by different degradants

5.1 Bulk (mechanical forces)

5.1.1 Elastic-brittle fracture

5.1.2 Elastic-plastic deformation

5.1.3 Time-related damage Fatigue (fretting) Creep Creep-fatigue Thermo-creep

5.1.4 Impact damage

5.1.5 Shear fracture

5.1.6 Compression set

5.1.7 Bending forces

5.1.8 Anisotropic damage

5.2 Electric forces

5.2.1 Tracking

5.2.2 Arcing

5.2.3 Cell deformation

5.2.4 Flooding and drying out (batteries)

5.2.5 Pin-holes

5.2.6 Cr


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© 2012
ChemTec Publishing
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About the author

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books, 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada