Astrocytes Pt 2: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pharmacology of Astrocytes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122504525, 9780323150491

Astrocytes Pt 2: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pharmacology of Astrocytes

1st Edition

Editors: Sergey Fedorff
eBook ISBN: 9780323150491
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th January 1987
Page Count: 434
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Description

Astrocytes: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pharmacology of Astrocytes, Volume 2 focuses on the physiological and pharmacological aspects of astrocytes.

This volume gives specific attention to intracellular metabolic activity; membrane components and functions; responses to neurotransmitters and other intrinsic factors; and neuronal-glial interactions. Studies in this text establishe the astrocyte as an essential neuronal partner in the neuronal-glial interrelationship throughout the life-span of the neuron and also further explain the potential roles of astrocytes in brain function.

Cell physiologists, neurophysiologists, neuropharmacologists, pediatric neurologists, and gerontologists will find the book interesting.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

Electrophysiological Properties of Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Biophysical Properties

III. Neuropharmacological Responses

IV. Electrogenesis of Slow Extracellular Potentials

V. Function of Astrocytes in Regulating the Brain Microenvironment

VI. Conclusions

References

Ionic Channels in Glial Cells

I. General Introduction

II. Na + Channels

III. Other Channels

IV. Concluding Remarks

Addendum

References

Astroglia Cells in Culture: Receptors and Cyclic Nucleotides

I. Introduction

II. Characterization of Cell Types

III. Regulation of Cyclic AMP Levels

IV. Regulation of Cyclic GMP Levels

V. Conclusion

References

Catecholamine and Serotonin Uptake in Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Uptake Systems for Neurotransmitter Monoamines

III. Localization of Catecholamine and Serotonin Uptake in Brain

IV. Uptake into Astrocytes in Vitro

V. Conclusions

References

Amino Acid Uptake

I. Introduction

II. Autoradiographic Localization of the Uptake of Amino Acid Transmitters by Astrocytes and Satellite Glial Cells

III. Autoradiographic Localization of the Uptake of Amino Acid Transmitters by Other Types of Nonneuronal Cells

IV. Kinetic Characterization of Transport Processes for Amino Acids in Astrocytes

V. Concluding Remarks

References

The Supply of Choline to Glial Cells

I. Introduction

II. The Passage of Choline across the Blood-Brain Barrier

III. Uptake of Choline into Glial Cells

IV. Production of Choline

V. De Novo Synthesis of Choline

VI. Conclusions

References

Role of Astrocytes in Compartmentation of Amino Acid and Energy Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Metabolic Compartmentation in Brain Tissue

III. Transport of Glutamate and Related Amino Acids

IV. Activities of Enzymes Involved in Interconversions between Glutamate and Related Amino Acids

V. Metabolic Fluxes of Glutamate and Related Amino Acids or Other Substrates

VI. Ammonia Turnover

VII. Concluding Remarks

References

Enzyme Induction and Regulation of Protein Synthesis

I. Regulation of Cellular and Extracellular Astroglial Proteins

II. Glutamine Synthetase

III. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein

IV. Carbonic Anhydrase

V. S-100 Protein

VI. Future Directions

References

Distribution and Regulation of Hydrogen Ions in Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Measurement of Intracellular pH

III. Glial Cell Cultures

IV. Intracellular pH of Cultured Glial Cells

V. Summary

References

Astrocytic Lipids and their Metabolism

I. Lipid Composition

II. Lipid Metabolism

References

Nutritional Requirements of Cultured Astroglial Cells

I. Introduction

II. Growth of Astroglial Cells in Serum-Containing Media

III. Growth of Astroglial Cells in Serum-Free Chemically Defined Media

IV. Growth Factors Affecting Astroglial Cells in Culture

V. Conclusions

References

Neuronal-Glial Interactions

I. Effects of Glia on Neurons

II. Effects of Neurons on Glia

III. Summary and Conclusions

References

Astroglial Cell Contributions to Neuronal Survival and Neuritic Growth

I. Introduction and Hypothesis

II. In Vitro Evidence of Neuronal Regulation by Astroglial (and Other) Molecules

III. In Vivo Studies Implicating Neuronal Regulation by Astroglial Cells

IV. In Vivo-in Vitro Combined Strategies

V. Conclusions and Projections

References

Changes in Astrocytes with Aging

I. Introduction

II. Astrocyte Population

III. Biochemical Changes

IV. Microenvironment

V. Synapse Function

VI. Pathological Reactions in Astrocytes

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
434
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1986
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323150491

About the Editor

Sergey Fedorff