Astrocytes Pt 1: Development, Morphology, and Regional Specialization of Astrocytes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122504518, 9780323152471

Astrocytes Pt 1: Development, Morphology, and Regional Specialization of Astrocytes

1st Edition

Editors: Sergey Fedorff
eBook ISBN: 9780323152471
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th January 1987
Page Count: 394
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Astrocytes: Development, Morphology, and Regional Specialization of Astrocytes, Volume 1 provides an overview of the development and diversity of astrocytes in the whole central nervous system and serves as a guide to the members of the astrocyte family.

This volume discusses the phylogenetic and ontogenetic development, the origin, differentiation, and topographical distribution of astrocytes. The text deals mainly with astrocytes in the brains of birds and mammals because of the maximum diversity and specialization of glial cells found in these vertebrates. The book will be of great use to cellular biologists, developmental neurobiologists, pediatric neurologists, neurochemists, neurologists, and neuropathologists.

Table of Contents



Phylogenetic Development of Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Outline of the Phylogenetic Relationships of Animals

III. Morphological and Ultrastructural Features

IV. Positional Relationships

V. Functional Attributes

VI. Conclusions


Prenatal Ontogenesis of Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Development of Neural Tube

III. Differentiation of Neural Tube

IV. Development of Astrocytes in Situ

V. Development of Astrocytes in Tissue Culture

VI. Development of Raff's Type 1 and Type 2 Astrocytes

VII. Conclusions


Postnatal Ontogenesis of Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Ultrastructure of Developing Astrocytes

III. Immunochemical Differentiation

IV. Quantitative Aspects

V. Development of Astrocyte-Related Cells

VI. Conclusions


Fibrous and Protoplasmic Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Postnatal Ontogenesis of Fibrous and Protoplasmic Astrocytes

III. Morphology in Light Microscopy

IV. Ultrastructure of Fibrous and Protoplasmic Astrocytes

V. Conclusion


Ependymal Tanycytes of the Ventricular System in Vertebrates

I. Historical Background and General Location of Tanycytes

II. Origin and Development

III. Tanycytes of the Third Ventricle

IV. Aqueductal and Fourth Ventricular Tanycytes

V. Spinal Cord Tanycytes


The Müller Cell

I. Introduction

II. Morphology and Ultrastructure

III. Development

IV. Electrophysiology

V. Pharmacology and Biochemistry



I. Introduction

II. Development of Pituicytes

III. Morphology of Pituicytes

IV. Spatial Relations to Neurosecretory Nerve Fibers and Perivascular Spaces

V. In Vitro Studies of Pituicytes

VI. Functional Aspects: Cytochemical and Immunocytochemical Results

VII. Reactions of Pituicytes to Experimental Conditions

VIII. Possible Role of Pituicytes during Neurosecretion: Concluding Statements and Questions


Pineal Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Astrocytes in the Human Pineal Gland

III. Astrocytes in the Pineal Gland of Lower Species

IV. Concluding Remarks


Astrocytes in the Cerebral Cortex with Special Regard to Tissue Culture Studies

I. Introduction

II. Development and Morphology of Astroglia in the Rat Cerebral Cortex

III. Methods for Studying Properties of Astroglia from Cerebral Cortex

IV. Seeding of Primary Cultures

V. Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of Primary Cultures from the Cerebral Cortex

VI. Aspects of Cell Differentiation in Culture

VII. Functional Aspects of Astroglial-Like Cells from Cerebral Cortex

VIII. Concluding Remarks


Cerebellar Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Structure of the Adult Cerebellar Cortex

III. Development of the Cerebellum

IV. Use of Cultured Astrocytes as a Model for Astrocyte Differentiation and Function


Astrocytic Diversity in the Optic Nerve: A Cytoarchitectural Study

I. Introduction

II. Development

III. Specialized Features

IV. The Cytoarchitecture of Astrocytes in the Optic Nerve


Astrocytes in the Olfactory Bulb

I. Introduction

II. Glial Cell Types in the Olfactory Nerve Fiber Layer

III. Relationship of Ensheathing Cells to Other Glial Cells

IV. Implications of Hypothesis That Ensheathing Cell Is a Variant of Astrocyte

V. Concluding Remarks


Astrocytes and the Blood-Brain Barrier

I. Introduction

II. Structural Specializations in Brain Endothelium

III. Histochemical Specializations in Brain Endothelium

IV. Do Astrocytes Play a Role in the Blood-Brain Barrier?

V. Summary


Cell Junctions of Astrocytes, Ependyma, and Related Cells in the Mammalian Central Nervous System, with Emphasis on the Hypothesis of a Generalized Functional Syncytium of Supporting Cells

I. Classification of Neuroepithelial Progenies

II. Relationships of Ependyma, Ependymoglia, and Astroglia

III. Classification and Structure of Cell Junctions

IV. Possible Functional Implications of Junctional Cooperativity

V. Glial Cell Polarization

VI. Other Data on Glial Junctions




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© Academic Press 1986
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Sergey Fedorff

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