Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health

Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health

2nd Edition - February 11, 2016

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  • Editor: Gurumurthy Ramachandran
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323353236
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323354080

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Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health provides a systematic overview of nanoparticle risks and considers the limitations of this paradigm in a context where extreme uncertainties prevail. As well as exploring conventional risk assessment methodology, the contributing authors investigate several alternate approaches. The adequacy of current frameworks for risk management and regulatory oversights, including corporate approaches in the US and EU, are explored, and suggestions are made as to how these frameworks can be modified to make them more efficient and effective.Presenting a coherent framework for analysis of the available information, this book presents the latest scientific understanding of the toxicity and health effects of nanoparticles, the technical issues relating to exposure assessment and management, and the ways in which the current risk paradigm can be used/modified to deal with the challenges of nanoparticle risks.All chapters of this new edition have been thoroughly updated to reflect the many changes in the field since the first edition. Additions and updates in the second edition of the book include: New exposure assessment strategies for nanomaterials including life cycle exposure assessment approaches and detailed information on nanoparticle exposure control and protection in the workplace. A state-of-the-art scientific update on the hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials: discussion of key additional publications on the toxicology and biokinetics of nanomaterials; available data and methods to characterize the health hazard and risk of exposure to nanomaterials in the workplace; additional examples of the use of such data and methods to develop occupational safety and health guidance; and discussion of progress to date, ongoing efforts, and remaining challenges in nanomaterials hazard and risk characterization. New studies on the use of expert judgment in nanotechnology. Quantitative data from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s 4-phase study. A description and evaluation of new CB tools and new ISO technical specifications. A comprehensive update of the legal frameworks in the US and the EU. With the second edition of Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health Prof. Ramachandran provides researchers and practitioners producing or using nanoparticles, or those involved in nanomaterials risk assessments, technology, health science, policy, safety, environment and regulatory aspects an invaluable reference to adopt the right technologies and strategies and to comply to legal frameworks and regulations. For policy makers and advisory firms it provides the knowledge needed to advise on compliance with or development of new regulations on nanomaterials.

Key Features

  • Makes essential reading for risk assessment professionals, companies working with nanoparticles, nanotechnology research groups and regulators
  • Explores the use of risk assessment methodologies in an occupational health setting, and their limitations
  • Provides a framework for evidence-based decision making in a context with many uncertainties


Practitioners of risk assessment in corporate and regulatory sectors who are in the position of making decisions about nanoparticle risks in the absence of definitive evidence of their health risks.

Table of Contents

    • About the Editor
    • About the Contributors
    • Preface
    • Chapter 1. The Challenge of Nanomaterial Risk Assessment
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 The Nature of the Nanomaterial Challenge
      • 1.3 The Problem with Definitions
      • 1.4 Principles-Based Problem Formulation for Engineered Nanomaterials
      • 1.5 Applying the Three Principles to Engineered Nanomaterials
      • 1.6 Responsible Research and Innovation
      • 1.7 Looking Forward
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Assessing and Managing Exposures to Nanomaterials in the Workplace
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 A General Strategy to Assess Workplace Exposures
      • 2.2 Uncertainties Introduced by Nanotechnology
      • 2.3 Exposure Routes
      • 2.4 Occupational Exposure Limits
      • 2.5 Instruments Available to Assess Exposures
      • 2.6 Specific “Best Practices” for Exposure Assessment Strategy in Nanotechnology
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Hazard and Risk Assessment of Workplace Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles: Methods, Issues, and Carbon Nanotube Case Study
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Case Study Example: Carbon Nanotubes
      • 3.3 Discussion
      • References
      • Appendix: Pulmonary Ventilation Rate Calculations
    • Chapter 4. Lung Bioassay Methodologies for Assessing Hazards After Exposures to Nanoscale or Fine Particulates
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction and General Background
      • 4.2 Subchronic Inhalation Study in Rats with Carbon Nanofibers—OECD Test Guideline 413
      • 4.3 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Using Expert Judgment for Risk Assessment
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction: Uncertainties in Risk Assessment
      • 5.2 Limitations of Existing Methodologies for Risk Assessment and Precedents for Using Expert Judgment
      • 5.3 Eliciting Expert Judgment—Selection of Experts, Elicitation Protocols, and Best Practices
      • 5.4 Arriving at Consensus Risk Estimates
      • 5.5 The Use of Expert Judgment for Nanoparticle Risks
      • 5.6 Expert Judgment in the Development of a Nanomaterial Risk Screening Tool
      • 5.7 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Risk Assessment Using Control Banding
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Challenges Related to the Traditional Industrial Hygiene Approach
      • 6.3 Control Banding and Risk Prioritization Tools for Nanomaterials
      • 6.4 ISO Standard on Use of the Control Banding Approach
      • 6.5 CB Nanotool
      • 6.6 Evaluation of the CB Nanotool
      • 6.7 Quantitative Validation of the CB Nanotool
      • 6.8 Considerations for the Nanotechnology Industry
      • 6.9 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Controlling Nanoparticle Exposures
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 The Hierarchy of Control
      • 7.3 Criteria for Prioritizing Control Options
      • 7.4 Form of Nanomaterials
      • 7.5 Local Exhaust Ventilation
      • 7.6 Air Pollution Control Devices
      • 7.7 Work Practices
      • 7.8 Personal Protective Equipment
      • 7.9 Summary and Recommendations
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Addressing the Risks of Nanomaterials under United States and European Union Regulatory Frameworks for Chemicals,
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 U.S. Chemicals Regulation
      • 8.3 European Union Chemicals Regulation
      • 8.4 Comparative Analysis
      • 8.5 Conclusion
      • Endnotes
      • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 286
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2016
  • Published: February 11, 2016
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323353236
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323354080

About the Editor

Gurumurthy Ramachandran

Gurumurthy Ramachandran is a Professor in the Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Minnesota, USA

Affiliations and Expertise

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Minnesota, USA

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