Creating robust artificial intelligence is one of the greatest challenges for game developers, yet the commercial success of a game is often dependent upon the quality of the AI. In this book, Ian Millington brings extensive professional experience to the problem of improving the quality of AI in games. He describes numerous examples from real games and explores the underlying ideas through detailed case studies. He goes further to introduce many techniques little used by developers today. The book's associated web site contains a library of C++ source code and demonstration programs, and a complete commercial source code library of AI algorithms and techniques.

"Artificial Intelligence for Games - 2nd edition" will be highly useful to academics teaching courses on game AI, in that it includes exercises with each chapter. It will also include new and expanded coverage of the following: AI-oriented gameplay; Behavior driven AI; Casual games (puzzle games).

Key Features

* The first comprehensive, professional tutorial and reference to implement true AI in games written by an engineer with extensive industry experience.
* Walks through the entire development process from beginning to end.
* Includes examples from over 100 real games, 10 in-depth case studies, and web site with sample code.


Game developers, Game AI Programmers. Game Development/AI students. Level: Intermediate to Advanced.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents: Descriptions have been added to sections which will have significant changes in the 2nd edition. 1 INTRODUCTION Will now make the code available exclusively online. This section would describe how to access the code and what it contains, in broad brush strokes. I have a completely new codebase for the second edition, with many more demos. 2 GAME AI This chapter has been reorganised to include an additional section: AGENTS, PERCEPTS AND ACTIONS. This is a new section that looks at characters in a game in a more systemic way. It helps set up several of the later chapters that didn't have an organising principle. This section also includes updates on the current generation of hardware. In particular multi-core consoles. 3 MOVEMENT Adding new section (ACTIONS AND MOVEMENT). Also, including more information on the representation of motion in a game engine, particularly a game engine with a physics core. There is additional material on COMBINING STEERING BEHAVIORS. 4 PATHFINDING A short subsection on path finding in the presence of uncertainty will be added. This is an interesting new subfield. 5 DECISION MAKING Adding a new section (BEHAVIOR TREES): a single technique set. A new section will be added to discuss goal oriented action planning outside the context of the Sims-like game from the 1st ed. Additional techniques will be discussed to allow readers to implement GOAP in other game genres. In particular two techniques: Hierarchical Task Planning and Partial Order Planning, will be introduced and applied at their most basic level.


No. of pages:
© 2009
Morgan Kaufmann
Print ISBN:

About the authors

Ian Millington

Ian Millington is a partner of IPR Ventures, a consulting company developing next-generation AI technologies for entertainment, modeling, and simulation. Previously he founded Mindlathe Ltd, the largest specialist AI middleware company in computer games, working with on a huge range of game genres and technologies. He has a long background in AI, including PhD research in complexity theory and natural computing. He has published academic and professional papers and articles on topics ranging from paleontology to hypertext.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ian Millington is a consultant specializing in research and development for the games industry. He has done a good deal of work on physics engines and developing physics code. He was previously the CEO of a games technology company, and before that he ran one of the first web-based games companies. Millington's background is in artificial intelligence, and he has published academically on a range of topics. Ian Millington is author of Artificial Intelligence for Games (MK).

John Funge

Affiliations and Expertise

John Funge is a co-founder and one of the lead scientists at AiLive Inc. (formerly iKuni), a Silicon Valley based company focusing on developing real-time machine learning technology for computer entertainment. John is also an Assistant Adjunct Professor at the University of California Santa Cruz.


"Ian Millington's book is a comprehensive reference to the most widely used techniques in game AI today. Any game developer working on AI will learn something from this book, and game producers should make sure their AI programmers have a copy." -Dr. Ian Lane Davis, Mad Doc Software