Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems

Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems

Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge

1st Edition - December 25, 1987

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  • Author: Etienne Wenger
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483221113

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Description

Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems: Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge focuses on the cognitive approaches, methodologies, principles, and concepts involved in the communication of knowledge. The publication first elaborates on knowledge communication systems, basic issues, and tutorial dialogues. Concerns cover natural reasoning and tutorial dialogues, shift from local strategies to multiple mental models, domain knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, implicit versus explicit encoding of knowledge, knowledge communication, and practical and theoretical implications. The text then examines interactive simulations, existing CAI traditions, and learning environments. The manuscript elaborates on knowledge communication, didactics, and diagnosis. Topics include knowledge presentation and communication, pedagogical contexts, target levels of didactic operations, behavioral and epistemic diagnosis, and aspects of diagnostic experience. The publication is a dependable reference for researchers interested in the computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge.

Table of Contents


  • Part I A First Glance: Introducing the Field

    Chapter 1 Knowledge Communication Systems

    1.1 Implicit Versus Explicit Encoding Of Knowledge

    1.2 Knowledge Communication

    1.3 Practical and Theoretical Implications

    1.4 An Interdisciplinary Enterprise

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 2 Basic Issues

    2.1 Domain Knowledge: The Object of Communication

    2.2 Student Model: The Recipient of Communication

    2.3 Pedagogical Knowledge: The Skill of Communication

    2.4 Interface: The Form of Communication

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Part II A Panorama: People, Ideas, and Systems

    Chapter 3 Tutorial Dialogues: From Semantic Nets to Mental Models

    3.1 SCHOLAR: Launching a New Paradigm

    3.2 Natural Reasoning and Tutorial Dialogues

    3.3 WHY: The Socratic Method

    3.4 From Local Strategies to Multiple Mental Models

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 4 SOPHIE: From Quantitative to Qualitative Simulation

    4.1 Simulation: Dialogues and Learning Environments

    4.2 Natural-Language Interface: Semantic Grammars

    4.3 SOPHIE-I: Simulation-Based Inferences

    4.4 SOPHIE-II: An Articulate Expert

    4.5 SOPHIE-III: Humanlike Reasoning

    4.6 Mental Models: Qualitative Reasoning

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 5 Interactive Simulations: Communicating Mental Models

    5.1 STEAMER: Simulation and Abstraction

    5.2 QUEST: Progressions of Qualitative Models

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 6 Existing CAI Traditions: Other Early Contributions

    6.1 Early Attempts to Tailor Problem-Solving Experiences

    6.2 Pedagogical Experiments: Teaching Expertise

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 7 Learning Environments: Coaching Ongoing Activities

    7.1 LOGO: Knowledge Communication as Learning

    7.2 WEST: Relevance and Memorability of Interventions

    7.3 The Design of Learning Environments

    7.4 WUSOR: Toward Learner-Oriented Models of Expertise

    7.5 Architectures Organized Around Curricula

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 8 Bugs in Procedural Skills: The "Buggy Repair Step' Story

    8.1 BUGGY: An Enumerative Theory of Bugs

    8.2 DEBUGGY: A Diagnostic System

    8.3 REPAIR Theory: A Generative Theory of Bugs

    8.4 STEP Theory: A Learning Model of Bug Generation

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 9 More on Student Modeling: Toward Domainindependent Mechanisms

    9.1 PSM/ACE: Interactive Diagnosis

    9.2 LMS: Inferential Diagnosis with Rules and Mal-Rules

    9.3 PIXIE: Generating Mal-Rules

    9.4 UMFE: A Generic Modeling Subsystem

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 10 Bug Reconstruction: Beyond Libraries of Bugs

    10.1 Extending Past Knowledge with General Operators

    10.2 Syntactic Manipulations on Production Systems

    10.3 ACM: Machine Learning Techniques for Diagnosis

    10.4 Primitive Operators Versus Bugs

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 11 Problem Solving and Design: Diagnostic Plan Analysis

    11.1 The FLOW Tutor: Structured Memory Organization

    11.2 SPADE: Toward a Tutor Based on a Theory of Design

    11.3 The MACSYMA ADVISOR: Plans and Beliefs

    11.4 MENO: Debugging and Tutoring

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 12 GUIDON: The Epistemology of an Expert System

    12.1 GUIDON: A Tutor on Top of MYCIN

    12.2 NEOMYCIN: Reconfiguring the Expert Knowledge

    12.3 GUIDON2: Tutoring Systems for Classification Tasks

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 13 ACTP: A Marriage with Cognitive Psychology

    13.1 Cognitive Theories and Pedagogy

    13.2 Tutoring Systems Based on Theoretical Principles

    13.3 Field Evaluation of ACTP's Tutors

    13.4 Skill Acquisition and Expertise

    Summary and Conclusion

    Bibliographical Notes

    Part III A synopsis: The State of the Art

    Chapter 14 The Computer

    14.1 Representational Mappings: Epistemic Fidelity

    14.2 Internal Representation: The Power of Process Models

    14.3 External Representation: The Power of Interfaces

    14.4 Process Model and Interface: Reification

    14.5 Representational Commitments

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 15 The Domain

    15.1 Communicability in Epistemic Terms

    15.2 Compiled Knowledge

    15.3 Conceptual Articulation: Contents

    15.4 Epistemological Articulation: Organization

    15.5 The paradox of Articulation

    15.6 Articulation Versus Compilation

    Chapter 16 The Student

    16.1 Scope of Expertise

    16.2 Incorrect Knowledge

    16.3 Viewpoints

    16.4 Knowledge States

    Chapter 17 Diagnosis

    17.1 Behavioral Diagnosis

    17.2 Epistemic Diagnosis

    17.3 Noise: Sources and Solutions

    17.4 Sources of Evidence: Diagnostic Data

    17.5 Aspects of Diagnostic Expertise

    Chapter 18 Didactics

    18.1 Didactic Operations: Plans of Action

    18.2 Pedagogical Contexts

    18.3 Decision Base: Constraints and Resources

    18.4 Target Levels of Didactic Operations

    18.5 Aspects of Didactic Expertise

    Bibliographical Notes

    Chapter 19 Knowledge Communication

    19.1 The Components of Knowledge Communication

    19.2 Knowledge Presentation

    19.3 Knowledge Communication

    Chapter 20 Epilogue

    20.1 Direct Outcome: Useful Systems

    20.2 Indirect Outcome: Articulation of Expertise

    20.3 Related Research: Motivation and Validation

    20.4 Research Topic: Knowledge and Communication

    Bibliography

    Figure Credits

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 510
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Morgan Kaufmann 1998
  • Published: December 25, 1987
  • Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483221113

About the Author

Etienne Wenger

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