Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780934613262, 9781483221113

Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems

1st Edition

Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge

Authors: Etienne Wenger
eBook ISBN: 9781483221113
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 25th December 1987
Page Count: 510
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Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems: Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge focuses on the cognitive approaches, methodologies, principles, and concepts involved in the communication of knowledge.

The publication first elaborates on knowledge communication systems, basic issues, and tutorial dialogues. Concerns cover natural reasoning and tutorial dialogues, shift from local strategies to multiple mental models, domain knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, implicit versus explicit encoding of knowledge, knowledge communication, and practical and theoretical implications. The text then examines interactive simulations, existing CAI traditions, and learning environments.

The manuscript elaborates on knowledge communication, didactics, and diagnosis. Topics include knowledge presentation and communication, pedagogical contexts, target levels of didactic operations, behavioral and epistemic diagnosis, and aspects of diagnostic experience.

The publication is a dependable reference for researchers interested in the computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge.

Table of Contents

Part I A First Glance: Introducing the Field

Chapter 1 Knowledge Communication Systems

1.1 Implicit Versus Explicit Encoding Of Knowledge

1.2 Knowledge Communication

1.3 Practical and Theoretical Implications

1.4 An Interdisciplinary Enterprise

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 2 Basic Issues

2.1 Domain Knowledge: The Object of Communication

2.2 Student Model: The Recipient of Communication

2.3 Pedagogical Knowledge: The Skill of Communication

2.4 Interface: The Form of Communication

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Part II A Panorama: People, Ideas, and Systems

Chapter 3 Tutorial Dialogues: From Semantic Nets to Mental Models

3.1 SCHOLAR: Launching a New Paradigm

3.2 Natural Reasoning and Tutorial Dialogues

3.3 WHY: The Socratic Method

3.4 From Local Strategies to Multiple Mental Models

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 4 SOPHIE: From Quantitative to Qualitative Simulation

4.1 Simulation: Dialogues and Learning Environments

4.2 Natural-Language Interface: Semantic Grammars

4.3 SOPHIE-I: Simulation-Based Inferences

4.4 SOPHIE-II: An Articulate Expert

4.5 SOPHIE-III: Humanlike Reasoning

4.6 Mental Models: Qualitative Reasoning

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 5 Interactive Simulations: Communicating Mental Models

5.1 STEAMER: Simulation and Abstraction

5.2 QUEST: Progressions of Qualitative Models

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 6 Existing CAI Traditions: Other Early Contributions

6.1 Early Attempts to Tailor Problem-Solving Experiences

6.2 Pedagogical Experiments: Teaching Expertise

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 7 Learning Environments: Coaching Ongoing Activities

7.1 LOGO: Knowledge Communication as Learning

7.2 WEST: Relevance and Memorability of Interventions

7.3 The Design of Learning Environments

7.4 WUSOR: Toward Learner-Oriented Models of Expertise

7.5 Architectures Organized Around Curricula

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 8 Bugs in Procedural Skills: The "Buggy Repair Step' Story

8.1 BUGGY: An Enumerative Theory of Bugs

8.2 DEBUGGY: A Diagnostic System

8.3 REPAIR Theory: A Generative Theory of Bugs

8.4 STEP Theory: A Learning Model of Bug Generation

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 9 More on Student Modeling: Toward Domainindependent Mechanisms

9.1 PSM/ACE: Interactive Diagnosis

9.2 LMS: Inferential Diagnosis with Rules and Mal-Rules

9.3 PIXIE: Generating Mal-Rules

9.4 UMFE: A Generic Modeling Subsystem

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 10 Bug Reconstruction: Beyond Libraries of Bugs

10.1 Extending Past Knowledge with General Operators

10.2 Syntactic Manipulations on Production Systems

10.3 ACM: Machine Learning Techniques for Diagnosis

10.4 Primitive Operators Versus Bugs

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 11 Problem Solving and Design: Diagnostic Plan Analysis

11.1 The FLOW Tutor: Structured Memory Organization

11.2 SPADE: Toward a Tutor Based on a Theory of Design

11.3 The MACSYMA ADVISOR: Plans and Beliefs

11.4 MENO: Debugging and Tutoring

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 12 GUIDON: The Epistemology of an Expert System

12.1 GUIDON: A Tutor on Top of MYCIN

12.2 NEOMYCIN: Reconfiguring the Expert Knowledge

12.3 GUIDON2: Tutoring Systems for Classification Tasks

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 13 ACTP: A Marriage with Cognitive Psychology

13.1 Cognitive Theories and Pedagogy

13.2 Tutoring Systems Based on Theoretical Principles

13.3 Field Evaluation of ACTP's Tutors

13.4 Skill Acquisition and Expertise

Summary and Conclusion

Bibliographical Notes

Part III A synopsis: The State of the Art

Chapter 14 The Computer

14.1 Representational Mappings: Epistemic Fidelity

14.2 Internal Representation: The Power of Process Models

14.3 External Representation: The Power of Interfaces

14.4 Process Model and Interface: Reification

14.5 Representational Commitments

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 15 The Domain

15.1 Communicability in Epistemic Terms

15.2 Compiled Knowledge

15.3 Conceptual Articulation: Contents

15.4 Epistemological Articulation: Organization

15.5 The paradox of Articulation

15.6 Articulation Versus Compilation

Chapter 16 The Student

16.1 Scope of Expertise

16.2 Incorrect Knowledge

16.3 Viewpoints

16.4 Knowledge States

Chapter 17 Diagnosis

17.1 Behavioral Diagnosis

17.2 Epistemic Diagnosis

17.3 Noise: Sources and Solutions

17.4 Sources of Evidence: Diagnostic Data

17.5 Aspects of Diagnostic Expertise

Chapter 18 Didactics

18.1 Didactic Operations: Plans of Action

18.2 Pedagogical Contexts

18.3 Decision Base: Constraints and Resources

18.4 Target Levels of Didactic Operations

18.5 Aspects of Didactic Expertise

Bibliographical Notes

Chapter 19 Knowledge Communication

19.1 The Components of Knowledge Communication

19.2 Knowledge Presentation

19.3 Knowledge Communication

Chapter 20 Epilogue

20.1 Direct Outcome: Useful Systems

20.2 Indirect Outcome: Articulation of Expertise

20.3 Related Research: Motivation and Validation

20.4 Research Topic: Knowledge and Communication


Figure Credits

Author Index

Subject Index


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© Morgan Kaufmann 1987
Morgan Kaufmann
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Etienne Wenger

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