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Arthropod Vector: Controller of Disease Transmission, Volume 2 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128053607, 9780128093207

Arthropod Vector: Controller of Disease Transmission, Volume 2

1st Edition

Vector Saliva-Host-Pathogen Interactions

Editors: Stephen Wikel Serap Aksoy George Dimopoulos
Paperback ISBN: 9780128053607
eBook ISBN: 9780128093207
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th April 2017
Page Count: 332
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Arthropod Vector: Controller of Disease Transmission, Volume 2: Vector Saliva-Host Pathogen Interactions is built on topics initially raised at a related Keystone Symposium on Arthropod Vectors. Together with the separate, related Volume 1: Controller of Disease Transmission, this work presents a logical sequence of topic development that leads to regulatory considerations for advancing these and related concepts for developing novel control measures.

The three themes of symbionts, vector immune defenses and arthropod saliva modulation of the host environment are central to the concept of determinants of vector competence that involves all aspects of vector-borne pathogen development within the arthropod that culminates in the successful transmission to the vertebrate host.

These three areas are characterized at the present time by rapid achievement of significant, incremental insights, which advances our understanding for a wide variety of arthropod vector species, and this work is the first to extensively integrate these themes.

Key Features

  • Provides overviews of host defenses encountered by the blood feeding arthropod vector at the cutaneous interface
  • Addresses how these defenses are modulated by the vector, specific functions of vector saliva components, host response to vector-borne infectious agents and how vector-borne pathogens themselves modulate host defenses
  • Features expertly curated topics to ensure appropriate scope of coverage and aid integration of concepts and content across chapters


Medical and veterinary entomologists, vector biologists, parasitologists, global public health specialists, medical and veterinary infectious disease researchers, medical and veterinary immunologists, biotechnologists, vaccine development researchers, entrepreneurs, and government regulators facing the challenges of implementing policies regarding emerging and novel disease control technologies

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Network of Cells and Mediators of Innate and Adaptive Cutaneous Immunity: Challenges for an Arthropod Vector

  • The Cutaneous Immune System
  • Skin-Resident Immune Components
  • Recruitment of Inflammatory Cells to the Skin
  • The Skin Microbiome Aids Antipathogen Immunity
  • Outlook: How Vector and Pathogen Modulate Skin Immunity

Chapter 2. Vector Arthropods and Host Pain and Itch Responses

  • Introduction
  • Mechanisms of Itch and Pain
  • Histamine
  • Serotonin
  • Protease Activated Receptors
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • TRPV and TRPA
  • Endothelin 1
  • Interleukin-31 and Interleukin-13
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Mas-Related G Protein Coupled Receptors
  • Vector Arthropod Stimulation and Modulation of Host Itch and Pain Responses
  • Blood Feeding
  • Host Responses to Arthropod Bites
  • Arthropods and Itch Mediators
  • Arthropods: Histamine and Serotonin
  • Arthropods: Proteases
  • Arthropods: Additional Itch and Pain Receptors
  • Impact of Itch and Pain on Vector Feeding and Pathogen Transmission
  • What Are the Next Steps?

Chapter 3. Arthropod Modulation of Wound Healing

  • Introduction
  • Vector Arthropod Feeding
  • Wound Healing: Cells, Molecules, Mechanisms, and Phases
  • Hemostasis: First Phase of Wound Healing
  • Inflammation: Second Phase of Wound Healing
  • Proliferation: Third Phase of Wound Healing
  • Tissue Remodeling: Fourth Phase of Wound Healing
  • Vector Arthropod Modulation of Wound Healing
  • First Phase: Hemostasis and Vectors
  • Second Phase: Inflammation and Vectors
  • Third Phase: Proliferation and Vectors
  • Fourth Phase: Remodeling and Vectors
  • Concluding Statement

Chapter 4. Salivary Kratagonists: Scavengers of Host Physiological Effectors During Blood Feeding

  • Introduction
  • Modes of Kratagonist Identification
  • Diversity of Kratagonist Structure and Function
  • Biogenic Amine–Binding Lipocalins
  • Eicosanoid-Binding Lipocalins
  • Odorant-Binding Protein Relatives
  • “Yellow” Proteins From Sand Flies
  • CAP Domain Proteins From Tabanid Flies
  • Salivary Kratagonists of Macromolecular Effectors
  • Conclusions

Chapter 5. Basic and Translational Research on Sand Fly Saliva: Pharmacology, Biomarkers, and Vaccines

  • Background
  • Pharmacological Activities of Sand Fly Saliva
  • Immunomodulation of Immune Cells by Sand Fly Saliva
  • Sand Fly Salivary Recombinant Proteins as Markers of Vector Exposure
  • Sand Fly Saliva as a Vaccine Against Leishmaniasis
  • Translational Aspects of Sand Fly Saliva
  • Evolution of Sand Fly Salivary Proteins
  • Translational Opportunities and Future Directions

Chapter 6. Unique Features of Vector-Transmitted Leishmaniasis and Their Relevance to Disease Transmission and Control

  • Overview
  • Life Cycle of Leishmania in the Sand Fly Vector
  • The Usual Suspects: Components of the Infectious Inoculum
  • The Site of Bite
  • Behavioral Matters
  • Current Status of Leishmaniasis Control
  • A Bright Future Awaits
  • Concluding Remarks

Chapter 7. Early Immunological Responses Upon Tsetse Fly–Mediated Trypanosome Inoculation

  • Introduction: The Tsetse Fly-Trypanosome–Host Interphase
  • The Metacyclic Trypanosome Stages: Characteristics and Infectivity
  • The Tsetse Fly Vector: Implications of Saliva as a Vehicle
  • Histological and Ultrastructural Changes in Skin Following an Infective Tsetse Fly Bite
  • Parasite Escape From Early Immune Elimination
  • Future Directions

Chapter 8. Mosquito Modulation of Arbovirus–Host Interactions

  • Introduction
  • Saliva of Hematophagous Arthropods
  • Arthropod Saliva and the Vertebrate Host
  • Arthropods and Arboviruses
  • Conclusions

Chapter 9. Tick Saliva: A Modulator of Host Defenses

  • Introduction
  • Skin, Ticks, and Tick Saliva
  • Skin Immune Network
  • Ticks: Inflammation and Innate Immunity
  • Ticks and Keratinocytes
  • Ticks and Dendritic Cells
  • Ticks and Monocytes/Macrophages
  • Ticks and Endothelial Cells
  • Ticks and Neutrophils
  • Ticks, Type I Interferons and Natural Killer Cells
  • Ticks and Mast Cells
  • Ticks and Basophils
  • Ticks and Complement
  • A Model: Ticks Modulate Inflammation and Innate Immunity
  • Ticks and Adaptive Immunity
  • Concluding Remarks

Chapter 10. Tick Saliva and Microbial Effector Molecules: Two Sides of the Same Coin

  • Introduction
  • Nod-like Receptor Signaling
  • Tick saliva
  • Immune Subversion Mediated by Microbial Effectors
  • Outlook

Chapter 11. Tsetse Fly Saliva Proteins as Biomarkers of Vector Exposure

  • The Tsetse Fly as Vector of African Trypanosomes; African Trypanosomiasis and Vector Control
  • The Glossina Sialome: Characteristics and Diversity of Salivary Components
  • Host Antibodies Against Tsetse Saliva Proteins
  • Tools to Detect Antisaliva Antibodies in the Mammalian Host Serum: Qualitative and Semiquantitative Determination of Bite Exposure

Chapter 12. Epidemiological Applications of Assessing Mosquito Exposure in a Malaria-Endemic Area

  • Introduction
  • Development of Biomarker of Human Exposure to Anopheles Vector Bites
  • Applications of Biomarker of Human Exposure in Epidemiological Contexts
  • Toward the Development of an Anopheles Dipstick
  • Conclusion

Chapter 13. Ixodes Tick Saliva: A Potent Controller at the Skin Interface of Early Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Transmission

  • Introduction
  • Ixodes Hard Tick
  • Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato
  • The Vertebrate Host: The Skin, a Key Interface
  • Applications for Disease Understanding and Control
  • Current Advances and Future Directions

Chapter 14. Translation of Saliva Proteins Into Tools to Prevent Vector-Borne Disease Transmission

  • Introduction
  • Evolution of Hematophagy
  • Strategies of Vertebrate Host Hemostasis
  • Strategies of the Arthropod to Impair Host Hemostasis
  • Host Immune Responses to Arthropod Attachment and Feeding
  • Strategies of the Arthropod to Impair Host Inflammation
  • Saliva-Assisted Pathogen Transmission
  • Strategies for Identification of Salivary Vaccine Targets to Block Pathogen Transmission
  • Development of Salivary Protein-Based Vaccines—Limitations
  • Conclusion

Chapter 15. Considerations for the Translation of Vector Biology Research

  • The Pipeline
  • Product Development Plan
  • The Regulatory Process
  • To Translate or Not: That Is the Question
  • Determining the Public Health Impact of a Product


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2017
27th April 2017
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Stephen Wikel

Dr. Wikel has more than four decades of experience in teaching and research in a variety of areas including Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Biology of Disease Vectors, Immunology, Pathology, and Parasitology. He is recipient of numerous awards and honors including a previous Research Recognition Award of the Southwestern Branch, Entomological Society of America, and more recently, the St. Vincent’s Medical Center Endowed Chair in Medical Sciences. He has served on a variety of panels and review boards related to arthropod vector research, and was co-organizer of a related Keystone Symposium, also facilitating a session on “Immunological consequences of arthropod vector derived salivary factors.” A major focus of his research is characterization of the complex cellular and molecular immunology of the tick-host-pathogen interface as well as the mosquito Aedes aegypti and other insects of medical and veterinary public health importance. His work has been supported by grants from NIH/NIAID, USDA, CDC, and many others.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Senior Associate Dean for Scholarship (Research); Professor and Chairman, Department of Medical Sciences, Quinnipiac University, CT, USA

Serap Aksoy

Dr. Aksoy is in her fourth decade of a highly recognized career in academic research and teaching, and a recipient of many awards and honors such as Nominated Fellow, Entomological Society of America, and winner of the Connecticut Technology Council Research, Innovation and Leadership award, both in 2015. She has taught in the areas of Molecular Entomology, Vector Biology, and Biology of Eukaryotic Parasites and Helminths, with a special research focus on biology of the tsetse fly and transmission and control of trypanosomiasis. Together with Dr. Wikel she was one of three scientific organizers of the Keystone Symposium on “The Arthropod Vector: The Controller of Transmission.” She is also an Editorial Board Member for the Elsevier journal Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

George Dimopoulos

In addition to his academic appointments, Dr. Dimopoulos is Director of the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute Parasitology Core Facility. He is a permanent member of the NIH/NIAID Vector Biology Study Section and has lectured in such areas as Medical Entomology, Vector Biology, Innate Immunity and Molecular Entomology. He has been Editorial Board Member for journals including Insect Physiology and Insect Molecular Biology and has authored or co-authored more than 80 peer-reviewed scientific articles. His group’s research focuses on the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, in such areas as defense mechanisms employed by mosquito vectors against human pathogens, and how naturally occurring microbes of the mosquito intestine can influence the mosquito's susceptibility to infection with human pathogens, with an aim to discover control strategies for vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Dept. of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health; and Adjunct Professor, Department of Microbiology and Medical Zoology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine

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