Arthropod Vector: Controller of Disease Transmission, Volume 1

Arthropod Vector: Controller of Disease Transmission, Volume 1

Vector Microbiome and Innate Immunity of Arthropods

1st Edition - April 25, 2017

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  • Editors: Stephen Wikel, Serap Aksoy, George Dimopoulos
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128053508
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128092378

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Arthropod Vector: Controller of Disease Transmission, Volume 1: Vector Microbiome and Innate Immunity of Arthropods is built on topics initially raised at a related Keystone Symposium on Arthropod Vectors. Together with the separate, related Volume 2: Vector Saliva-Host Pathogen Interactions, this work presents a logical sequence of topic development that leads to regulatory considerations for advancing these and related concepts for developing novel control measures. The three themes of symbionts, vector immune defenses and arthropod saliva modulation of the host environment are central to the concept of determinants of vector competence that involves all aspects of vector-borne pathogen development within the arthropod that culminates in the successful transmission to the vertebrate host. These three areas are characterized at the present time by rapid achievement of significant, incremental insights, which advances our understanding for a wide variety of arthropod vector species, and this work is the first to extensively integrate these themes.

Key Features

  • Includes such major areas of coverage as host-derived factors, innate immunity of arthropod presentations and the arthropod microbiome/symbionts
  • Features expertly curated topics, ensuring appropriate scope of coverage and aid integration of concepts and content
  • Provides the necessary scientific background for the development of the research and discussions that have laid the groundwork for future efforts, including the Keystone Symposium and relevant meetings at NIAID/NIH


A broad market consisting of medical and veterinary entomologists, vector biologists, parasitologists, global public health specialists, medical and veterinary infectious disease researchers, medical and veterinary immunologists, biotechnologists, vaccine development researchers, entrepreneurs, and government regulators facing the challenges of implementing policies regarding emerging and novel disease control technologies

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. The Site of the Bite: Addressing Knowledge Gaps in Vector Transmission of Diseases
    Adriana Costero-Saint Denis

    • Vectors: The Neglected Part of the Equation
    • Identifying the Research Gaps
    • Role of Immune Cell Subsets in the Establishment of Vector-Borne Infections
    • Effect of Vector Innate Immunity and Human-Derived Immune Molecules on the Transmission of Vector-Borne Pathogens
    • Drosophila—a Useful Model for Vectors?
    • Arthropod Vectors and Disease Transmission: Translational Aspects
    • Translational Considerations for Novel Vector Management Approaches
    • Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology–the Arthropod Vector: The Controller of Transmission
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 2. Conservation and Convergence of Immune Signaling Pathways With Mitochondrial Regulation in Vector Arthropod Physiology
    Shirley Luckhart

    • Historical Importance of Insects in Our Understanding of Disease
    • The Blood-Feeding Interface
    • Ancient Regulatory Pathways of Homeostasis: IIS, TGF-β, MAPK
    • Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls Diverse Physiologies That Are Key to Vector Competence
    • Summary

    Chapter 3. Wolbachia-Mediated Immunity Induction in Mosquito Vectors
    Zhiyong Xi

    • Introduction
    • Wolbachia-Mediated Immune Inductions
    • The Role of Wolbachia-Induced Immunity in Pathogen Interference
    • The Role of Wolbachia-Induced Immunity in Symbiosis Formation
    • The Impact of Wolbachia-Induced Immunity on Microbiota
    • Evolution of Wolbachia-Mediated Immune Inductions and Its Impact on Disease Control
    • Translational Opportunities for Disease Control and Prevention
    • Future Research Directions

    Chapter 4. Modulation of Mosquito Immune Defenses as a Control Strategy
    Kristin Michel

    • Introduction
    • The Genetic Basis of Vector Competence and Its Link to Mosquito Immunity
    • Current Knowledge of Antiparasite Immune Reactions in the Mosquito Vector
    • The Regulation of Anti-Parasite Immunity by Canonical Signal Transduction Pathways
    • Creating Malaria-Refractory Mosquitoes in the Laboratory: The Proof of Principle
    • The Challenges and Opportunities for Boosting Mosquito Immunity in the Field

    Chapter 5. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Immune Priming in Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes
    Jose Luis Ramirez

    • Introduction
    • Essential Components in the Establishment of Immune Memory
    • Mosquito–Parasite Compatibility and the Strength of the Priming Response
    • Molecular Factors Mediating the Establishment and Maintenance of Innate Immune Priming
    • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
    • Take-Home messages

    Chapter 6. The Mosquito Immune System and Its Interactions With the Microbiota: Implications for Disease Transmission
    George Christophides

    • Introduction
    • The Mosquito Innate Immune System
    • The Mosquito Microbiota
    • Microbiota–Immune System Interactions
    • Perspective

    Chapter 7. Using an Endosymbiont to Control Mosquito-Transmitted Disease
    Luciano Moreira and E. Caragata

    • The Biology of Wolbachia pipientis
    • The Use of Wolbachia in Mosquito Control Programs
    • Prerelease Considerations
    • Field Deployment
    • Selecting the Right Wolbachia Strain
    • Pathogen Interference Versus Pathogen Enhancement
    • The Future

    Chapter 8. Effect of Host Blood–Derived Antibodies Targeting Critical Mosquito Neuronal Receptors and Other Proteins: Disruption of Vector Physiology and Potential for Disease Control
    Brian Foy

    • Background
    • Current Advances in Antimosquito Antibody Development
    • Future Research Directions
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 9. Role of the Microbiota During Development of the Arthropod Vector Immune System
    Brian Weiss

    • Spectrum of Vector–Microbe Interactions
    • Environmentally Acquired Commensal Bacteria Support Their Host’s Development
    • Microbiome Influences on Arthropod Host Vector Competence
    • Mutualistic Endosymbionts Support Their Host’s Development
    • The Tsetse Fly as a Model System for Studying Symbiont Contributions to Host Immune System Development
    • Summary and Concluding Thoughts

    Chapter 10. Host–Microbe Interactions: A Case for Wolbachia Dialogue
    Sassan Asgari

    • Introduction
    • Impact of Wolbachia on Mosquito Small RNAs
    • Manipulation of Host miRNAs as Regulators of Genes Involved in Wolbachia Maintenance
    • Effect of Alterations of Host miRNAs by Wolbachia on Host–Virus Interactions
    • Small RNAs as Mediators of Dialogue Between Host and Wolbachia
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 11. The Gut Microbiota of Mosquitoes: Diversity and Function
    Michael Strand

    • Introduction
    • Acquisition and Community Diversity of the Mosquito Gut Microbiota
    • Functions of the Gut Microbiota in Mosquitoes
    • Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 12. Targeting Dengue Virus Replication in Mosquitoes
    Carol Blair

    • Introduction: Why Target Dengue Virus in Mosquitoes?
    • Mosquitoes Naturally Target Dengue Virus Replication
    • Strategies to Enhance Targeting of Dengue Virus Replication in Mosquitoes
    • Summary and Future Directions

    Chapter 13. Paratransgenesis Applications: Fighting Malaria With Engineered Mosquito Symbiotic Bacteria
    Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

    • Introduction
    • Genetic Manipulation of Mosquito Vectorial Competence
    • Anopheles Gut Microbiota
    • Impact of Microbiota on Anopheles Physiology and Pathogen Transmission
    • Fighting Malaria Transmission With Paratransgenesis
    • Conclusion and Remarks

    Chapter 14. Insulin-Like Peptides Regulate Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Anopheles stephensi
    Jose Pietri

    • Introduction
    • The Biology of the Insulin-Like Peptides
    • Regulation of Insulin-Like Peptide Synthesis During Plasmodium Infection
    • Insulin-Like Peptide Regulation of Anopheles stephensi Physiology During Plasmodium Infection
    • Insulin-Like Peptide Regulation of Anopheles stephensi Behavior and Plasmodium falciparum Transmission
    • Conclusions and Future Directions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 270
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2017
  • Published: April 25, 2017
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128053508
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128092378

About the Editors

Stephen Wikel

Dr. Wikel has more than four decades of experience in teaching and research in a variety of areas including Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Biology of Disease Vectors, Immunology, Pathology, and Parasitology. He is recipient of numerous awards and honors including a previous Research Recognition Award of the Southwestern Branch, Entomological Society of America, and more recently, the St. Vincent’s Medical Center Endowed Chair in Medical Sciences. He has served on a variety of panels and review boards related to arthropod vector research, and was co-organizer of a related Keystone Symposium, also facilitating a session on “Immunological consequences of arthropod vector derived salivary factors.” A major focus of his research is characterization of the complex cellular and molecular immunology of the tick-host-pathogen interface as well as the mosquito Aedes aegypti and other insects of medical and veterinary public health importance. His work has been supported by grants from NIH/NIAID, USDA, CDC, and many others.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Senior Associate Dean for Scholarship (Research); Professor and Chairman, Department of Medical Sciences, Quinnipiac University, CT, USA

Serap Aksoy

Dr. Aksoy is in her fourth decade of a highly recognized career in academic research and teaching, and a recipient of many awards and honors such as Nominated Fellow, Entomological Society of America, and winner of the Connecticut Technology Council Research, Innovation and Leadership award, both in 2015. She has taught in the areas of Molecular Entomology, Vector Biology, and Biology of Eukaryotic Parasites and Helminths, with a special research focus on biology of the tsetse fly and transmission and control of trypanosomiasis. Together with Dr. Wikel she was one of three scientific organizers of the Keystone Symposium on “The Arthropod Vector: The Controller of Transmission.” She is also an Editorial Board Member for the Elsevier journal Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

George Dimopoulos

In addition to his academic appointments, Dr. Dimopoulos is Director of the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute Parasitology Core Facility. He is a permanent member of the NIH/NIAID Vector Biology Study Section and has lectured in such areas as Medical Entomology, Vector Biology, Innate Immunity and Molecular Entomology. He has been Editorial Board Member for journals including Insect Physiology and Insect Molecular Biology and has authored or co-authored more than 80 peer-reviewed scientific articles. His group’s research focuses on the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, in such areas as defense mechanisms employed by mosquito vectors against human pathogens, and how naturally occurring microbes of the mosquito intestine can influence the mosquito's susceptibility to infection with human pathogens, with an aim to discover control strategies for vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Dept. of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health; and Adjunct Professor, Department of Microbiology and Medical Zoology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine

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