ARM System Developer's Guide

ARM System Developer's Guide

Designing and Optimizing System Software

1st Edition - March 25, 2004

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  • Authors: Andrew Sloss, Dominic Symes, Chris Wright
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781558608740
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080490496

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Description

Over the last ten years, the ARM architecture has become one of the most pervasive architectures in the world, with more than 2 billion ARM-based processors embedded in products ranging from cell phones to automotive braking systems. A world-wide community of ARM developers in semiconductor and product design companies includes software developers, system designers and hardware engineers. To date no book has directly addressed their need to develop the system and software for an ARM-based system. This text fills that gap. This book provides a comprehensive description of the operation of the ARM core from a developer’s perspective with a clear emphasis on software. It demonstrates not only how to write efficient ARM software in C and assembly but also how to optimize code. Example code throughout the book can be integrated into commercial products or used as templates to enable quick creation of productive software. The book covers both the ARM and Thumb instruction sets, covers Intel's XScale Processors, outlines distinctions among the versions of the ARM architecture, demonstrates how to implement DSP algorithms, explains exception and interrupt handling, describes the cache technologies that surround the ARM cores as well as the most efficient memory management techniques. A final chapter looks forward to the future of the ARM architecture considering ARMv6, the latest change to the instruction set, which has been designed to improve the DSP and media processing capabilities of the architecture.

Key Features

* No other book describes the ARM core from a system and software perspective.
* Author team combines extensive ARM software engineering experience with an in-depth knowledge of ARM developer needs.
* Practical, executable code is fully explained in the book and available on the publisher's Website.
* Includes a simple embedded operating system.

Readership

two key audiences for the book: ARM partners, the semi-conductor companies that design chips using the ARM architecture; and product design companies (perhaps a division within the semi-conductor companies), the companies that use the resulting chip in a product design, such as a PDA.

Table of Contents

  • Table of Contents:

    1. ARM Embedded Systems
    1.1 The RISC Design Philosophy
    1.2 The ARM Design Philosophy
    1.3 Embedded System Hardware
    1.4 Embedded System Software
    1.5 Summary

    2 ARM Processor Fundamentals
    2.1 Registers
    2.2 Current Program Status Register
    2.3 Pipeline
    2.4 Exceptions, Interrupts, and the Vector Table
    2.5 Core Extensions
    2.6 Architecture Revisions
    2.7 ARM Processor Families
    2.8 Summary

    3 Introduction to the ARM Instruction Set
    3.1 Data Processing Instructions
    3.2 Branch Instructions
    3.3 Load-Store Instructions
    3.4 Software Interrupt Instruction
    3.5 Program Status Register Instructions
    3.6 Loading Constants
    3.7 ARMv5E Extensions
    3.8 Conditional Execution
    3.9 Summary

    4 Introduction to the Thumb Instruction Set
    4.1 Thumb Register Usage
    4.2 ARM-Thumb Interworking
    4.3 Other Branch Instructions
    4.4 Data Processing Instructions
    4.5 Single-Register Load-Store Instructions
    4.6 Multiple-Register Load-Store Instructions
    4.7 Stack Instructions
    4.8 Software Interrupt Instruction
    4.9 Summary

    5 Efficient C Programming
    5.1 Overview of C Compilers and Optimization
    5.2 Basic C Data Types
    5.3 C Looping Structures
    5.4 Register Allocation
    5.5 Function Calls
    5.6 Pointer Aliasing
    5.7 Structure Arrangement
    5.8 Bit-fields
    5.9 Unaligned Data and Endianness
    5.10 Division
    5.11 Floating Point
    5.12 Inline Functions and Inline Assembly
    5.13 Portability Issues
    5.14 Summary

    6 Writing and Optimizing ARM Assembly Code
    6.1 Writing Assembly Code
    6.2 Profiling and Cycle Counting
    6.3 Instruction Scheduling
    6.4 Register Allocation
    6.5 Conditional Execution
    6.6 Looping Constructs
    6.7 Bit Manipulation
    6.8 Efficient Switches
    6.9 Handling Unaligned Data
    6.10 Summary

    7 Optimized Primitives
    7.1 Double-Precision Integer Multiplication
    7.2 Integer Normalization and Count Leading Zeros
    7.3 Division
    7.4 Square Roots
    7.5 Transcendental Functions: log, exp, sin, cos
    7.6 Endian Reversal and Bit Operations
    7.7 Saturated and Rounded Arithmetic
    7.8 Random Number Generation
    7.9 Summary
    8 Digital Signal Processing
    8.1 Representing a Digital Signal
    8.2 Introduction to DSP on the ARM
    8.3 FIR filters
    8.4 IIR Filters
    8.5 The Discrete Fourier Transform
    8.6 Summary

    9 Exception and Interruput Handling
    9.1 Exception Handling
    9.2 Interrupts
    9.3 Interrupt Handling Schemes
    9.4 Summary

    10 Firmware
    10.1 Firmware and Bootloader
    10.2 Example: Sandstone
    10.3 Summary

    11 Embedded Operating Systems
    11.1 Fundamental Components
    11.2 Example: Simple Little Operating System
    11.3 Summary

    12 Caches
    12.1 The Memory Hierarchy and Cache Memory
    12.2 Cache Architecture
    12.3 Cache Policy
    12.4 Coprocessor 15 and Caches
    12.5 Flushing and Cleaning Cache Memory
    12.6 Cache Lockdown
    12.7 Caches and Software Performance
    12.8 Summary

    13 Memory Protection Units
    13.1 Protected Regions
    13.2 Initializing the MPU, Caches, and Write Buffer
    13.3 Demonstration of an MPU system
    13.4 Summary

    14 Memory Management Units
    14.1 Moving from an MPU to an MMU
    14.2 How Virtual Memory Works
    14.3 Details of the ARM MMU
    14.4 Page Tables
    14.5 The Translation Lookaside Buffer
    14.6 Domains and Memory Access Permission
    14.7 The Caches and Write Buffer
    14.8 Coprocessor 15 and MMU Configuration
    14.9 The Fast Context Switch Extension
    14.10 Demonstration: A Small Virtual Memory System
    14.11 The Demonstration as mmuSLOS
    14.12 Summary

    15 The Future of the Architecture
    by John Rayfield
    15.1 Advanced DSP and SIMD Support in ARMv6
    15.2 System and Multiprocessor Support Additions to ARMv6
    15.3 ARMv6 Implementations
    15.4 Future Technologies beyond ARMv6
    15.5 Conclusions
    Appendix A: ARM and Thumb Assembler Instructions

    Appendix: B ARM and Thumb Instruction Encodings
    Appendix C: Processors and Architecture
    Appendix D: Instruction Cycle Timings
    Appendix E: Suggested Reading

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 704
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Morgan Kaufmann 2004
  • Published: March 25, 2004
  • Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781558608740
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080490496

About the Authors

Andrew Sloss

Affiliations and Expertise

ARM, Los Gatos, CA

Dominic Symes

Affiliations and Expertise

ARM, Cambridge, UK

Chris Wright

Affiliations and Expertise

Ultimodule Inc., Sunnyvale, CA

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