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Applied Geotechnology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080240152, 9781483147758

Applied Geotechnology

1st Edition

A Text for Students and Engineers on Rock Excavation and Related Topics

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Author: A. Roberts
eBook ISBN: 9781483147758
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1981
Page Count: 360
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Applied Geotechnology deals with rock excavation and related topics such as the stability of soil and rock slopes, earthquakes, and earthquake engineering. Some basic ideas and fundamentals that are applicable to specific aspects of geotechnical engineering are described. Blasting technology is also discussed. along with water supply, oil and gas storage, the disposal of radioactive wastes, and the effects of mining on the surface environment. This book is comprised of 15 chapters and begins with a look at rock excavation by blasting, with emphasis on the blasting action of an explosive charge in solid material as well as the process of detonation in a high explosive. Vibrations and noise generated by blasting and other engineering processes are also considered, along with the techniques used in rock and earth excavation such as down-the-hole drilling, rotary rock drilling, roller-bit drilling, and rotary-percussive rock drilling. The following chapters focus on rock ripping and cutting; rapid tunnelling; the environmental and engineering aspects of the movement and control of groundwater; underground storage of oil and gas; pillar support of underground excavations; and ground-reinforcement techniques. The final chapter is devoted to ground movement, caving, and subsidence. This monograph is written primarily for engineers and is intended as a class text for first- and second-year students of geological, mining, and civil engineering at university and technical college.

Table of Contents

1. Rock Excavation by Blasting—I: The Blasting Action of an Explosive Charge in Solid Material


Stress Waves Due to Blasting

Shock Waves

Plastic Flow

Radial Cracks

Elastic Waves

Fracture Processes in Blasting


The "Equivalent Cavity"

Formation of the "Break Angle"

Crater Blasting

Geometry of Blast Craters

Radius of Crushed Zone around a Spherical Charge

Crater Formation Using Nuclear Explosives

Computation of Crater Geometry in Nuclear Blasting

Empirical Scaling of Crater Geometry

Single-Charge Apparent Crater Shape

Shape of Row-Charge Crater

True Crater Size and Shape

Blasting with Low Explosives

Coupling, Attenuation, and Transmission of Blast Energy through the Confining Medium



Attenuation of Blast Energy

Effects of Charge Shape on Coupling and Attenuation

Decking and Decoupling

Effects of Stemming the Charge

References and Bibliography

2. Rock Excavation by Blasting—II: Explosives, Blasting Agents, and Explosive Substitutes

Low Explosives

High Explosives


Ammonia Dynamites

Blasting Gelatines

Blasting Powders

Blasting Agents

An-FO Mixes

Water Gel or Slurry Explosives

Igniting and Detonating the Explosive Charge

Military Explosives

Liquid Explosives


Explosive Substitutes

The Cardox System

Air-Blasting System

The Blasting Action of Cardox and Compressed-Air Discharges

References and Bibliography

3. Rock Excavation by Blasting—III: Outline of Blasting Technology

The Evolution of Blasting Technology

Tunnel Blasting

Angled Cuts

Parallel-Hole Cuts

Burn Cut

Cylinder Cuts

Fragmentation and Throw-in Parallel Cut Blasting

Mechanical Cutting

Rotary Raise, Shaft, and Tunnel Borers

Quarry Bench Blasting

Crater Blasting and Trenching

Pre-Splitting and Smoothwall Blasting

Smoothwall Blasting


Selection of Explosives

Strength of Explosives

Ballistic Mortar Test

Trauzl Lead-Block Test

Submarine Testing of Explosives

Industrial Strength Ratings

Criteria for Selecting an Explosive

Detonation Velocity


Detonation Pressure

Water Resistance

Fume Class

Choice of Explosive

Determination of Charge Weight Required in Rock Blasting

Single Charges

Crater Methods of Blast Design

Livingston Formula

Design of Crater Cuts—Hino's Method

Blasting to a Free Face. Determination of Charge Weight

Distribution of the Charge

Initiation of the Blast

Detonation Systems

Designing Blast Patterns


Spacing between Holes

Optimum Length of Hole

The Blast Pattern

Blast Design Procedure

Placing the Charge in Underground Blasting

Pneumatic Cartridge Loaders

Placing the Charge in Surface Blasting

Perimeter Holes in Smoothwall Blasting

Bench and Open-Pit Blasting

Bulk-Loading Techniques

Powder Factor

Computer Analysis of Blast Design

References and Bibliography

4. Vibrations and D Noise from Blasting and Other Engineering Processes

Engineering and the Urban Environment

Criteria for Structural Damage Due to Ground Vibrations


Blast Ground-Wave Propagation Laws

Site Factors

Scaling Factor for Ground Vibrations

Recording Ground Vibrations from Blasting

Field Observation Procedure

Vibration Sources Other than Blasting

Ground Vibrations Due to Pile Driving

Subjective Assessment of Ground Vibrations

Minimizing the Effects of Ground Vibrations

Protection against Ground Vibrations from Other Sources

References and Bibliography

5. Excavation Technology—I: Small-Bore Rock Drilling

Penetration of Rock by Mechanical Means

Percussive Methods

Mechanical Arrangements for Percussive Drilling

Energy Transmission in Percussive Drilling

Energy Losses in the Drill-Rods

Rock Penetration by Percussive Drill-Bit

Force-Displacement Characteristic

Effect of Bit Shape

Effects of Thrust

Down-the-Hole Drilling

Rotary Rock Drilling

Rotary Bits for Small Blast-Holes

Performance Characteristics of Rotary Drag-Bits

Cutting Action in Drag-Bit Drilling

Rotary-Percussive Rock Drilling

Cutting Action in Rotary-Percussive Drilling

References and Bibliography

6. Excavation Technology—II: Rotary Roller-Bit Drilling

Roller-Bit Drilling


Application of Roller-Bit Drills

Performance Characteristics of Rotary Roller-Bit Drills

Effects of Thrust

Effect of Rotary Speed

Effect of Drill Fluid

The Rock-Penetration Process in Rotary Roller-Bit Drilling

Diamond Drilling

Diamond Drag-Bit

Performance Characteristics of Diamond Drills

Rock Penetration by Diamond Drill-Bit

References and Bibliography

7. Excavation Technology—III: Rock Ripping and Cutting

Rock-Cutting Machines

Chain Cutters

Disc Rock-Cutters


Wedge Penetration in Rock Machining

Rock-Wedge Interaction in the Brittle Regime

Rock-Wedge Interaction in the Ductile Regime

Effect of Rate of Loading

Rock Cutting by Impact

Penetration of Rock by Three-Dimensional Indentors

Assessment of Rock Reaction to Mechanical Attack

References and Bibliography

8. Excavation Technology—IV: Rapid Tunneling

The Evolution of Tunneling Techniques

Soft-Ground Tunneling Machines

Hard-Rock Tunnel Borers

Experiments with Disc Cutters

Ancillary Problems in Hard-Rock Tunnel Boring

Estimating the Projected Advance Rate of Mechanical Tunnel Borers

New Methods of Penetrating Rock

Penetration by Vibration

Hydraulic Jet Cutting

Cavitation Erosion

Ground Penetration by Projectile Impact

Penetration of Rock by Explosive Shaped-Charges

Explosion Drilling

Rock Fracture by Electrical Means

Electrothermal Techniques

Electroshock Impact

Microwave Drills

Chemical Rock Weakeners

Direct Thermal Techniques

Rock Spalling, Melting, and Vaporization

Rock Penetration by Flame Jets

Plasma Jets

Electron Beams


Rock Melting

The Subterrene

Comparison of "Exotic" Rock-Penetration Systems

References and Bibliography

9. Movement and Control of Groundwater—I: Environmental Aspects

Water Management

The Hydrological Cycle

Determination of Groundwater Flow Characteristics

Underground Water Reserves

Artificial Recharge

Use of Aquifers in Artificial Recharge

Injection of Recharge Water

Groundwater Quality

Alternatives to Groundwater Management

References and Bibliography

10. Movement and Control of Groundwater—II: Engineering Aspects

Groundwater Flow Characteristics


Recording Groundwater Flow Characteristics

Flow Nets

Groundwater Control and Slope Stability

Seepage Pressures and Uplift Forces

Seepage through Earth and Rockfill Dams and Embankments

Mine Hydrology

Tunneling under Saturated Areas

Sealing-off Groundwater


Grouting Procedure

Sealing-Off by Freezing

Layout of Freezing System for Shaft Sinking

Design Criteria in the Freezing Process

Excavation and Support of the Frozen Ground

Alternatives to Brine Systems

References and Bibliography

11. Underground Storage of Oil and Gas

Storage at High Pressure

Storage at Low Temperature

General Classification of Gas- and Oil-Storage Systems Underground


Salt Cavities

Mined Caverns

Existing Mines

Layout of Mined Caverns

Pressure Tunnels

Covered Surface Pits

General Principles of Underground Storage of Petroleum Products

Fixed Water-Bed

Mobile Water-Bed

Product Migration

Prevention of Leakage

Engineering Properties of Frozen Ground

The Mechanical Properties of Ice

Deformation of Ice under Load

Ultimate Strength of Ice

The Effects of Impurities

Stresses around Underground Storage Caverns

Monitoring the In Situ State of Stress

Hawkes Vibrating Wire Stressmeter

Monitoring by Microseismic Technique

Environmental Factors in Oil and Gas Storage

References and Bibliography

12. The Disposal of Waste Materials

Dumping Solid Wastes

Dumping Materials Liable to Fire

Dumping Dry Dusty Materials

Protection of Waste Dumps against Surface Erosion and Runoff

Open-Pit Strip Mines

Solid-Liquid Waste Materials

Coal-Mine Debris

Colliery Slurry Lagoons

Tailings Dams

Upstream Method of Construction

Downstream Method of Construction

Centerline Method of Construction

Failure of Mill-Tailings Dams

Shear Slide Failure


Piping Failure

Underground Disposal of Waste Materials

Mechanical Stowing

Pneumatic Stowing

Hydraulic Stowing

Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

Types of Radioactive Waste

Proposed Methods of Disposal

Protective Engineered Barriers

Protective Geological Barriers

Alternative Geological Formations

Possible Thermal Effects

Repository Design for Long-Term Storage

Safety Considerations

The Oklo Phenomenon

References and Bibliography

13. Pillar Support of Underground Excavations

Pillar Support Systems

Whole Workings

Pillar Robbing

Broken Workings

Layout of Room and Pillar Systems

Evolution of Room and Pillar Practice

Effect of Depth on Pillar Dimensions

Room and Pillar Coal-Workings outside Britain

Strata Control in Narrow Excavations

Fracture Control

Pressure Relief

Strata Control in the Broken Workings

The Yield-Pillar Technique

The Design of Pillar Support Systems

Determination of Pillar Loads

Stress Concentrations

Tributary-Area Theory

The Strength of Rock Pillars

Effect of the Width/Height Ratio

Effect of Roof and Floor Strata

Modes of Pillar Failure


Pillar Collapse

References and Bibliography

14. Ground-Reinforcement Techniques



Tension Reinforcement


Types of Rock-Bolt

Slit-Rod and Wedge

Expansion Shell

Expansion Shell and Plug

Typical Modes of Application

Bolting in Hard-Rock Tunnels

Bolting in Stratified Sediments

Theory of Rock-Bolt Action in Laminated Sediments

Bolting in Discontinuous Ground

General Theory of Rock-Bolt Action

Empirical Approaches to the Design of Rock-Bolt Systems

Photoelastic Models

Field Studies

Bolt Tension Fall-off

Grouted Bolts

Theoretical Stress Distribution on Grouted Bolts

Optimum Length of Bolt

Determination of System Dimensions

Anchorage Systems in Weak Ground

Split-Set Rock-Bolts

Anchorage Testing

References and Bibliography

15. Ground Movement, Caving, and Subsidence

Surface Ground Movement and the Human Environment

Mining Systems Involving Caving

Caving in Bedded Deposits

Longwall Mining

Equilibrium of Supported Roof in Longwall Caving

Top Slicing

Caving in Massive Deposits

Sublevel Caving

The Notch Effect

Gravity Flow of Caved Rock

Block Caving

Rock Mechanics Aspects of Block Caving

Ground Movement Theories

The Arch Theory

Dome Theories

Beam Theories

Plastic Flow Theory

Trough Theories

The Subsidence Profile

Effects of Width of Extraction and Depth of Workings

Angle of Draw

Angle of Slide

Effects of Faulting on the Angle of Draw

Effects of Inclination on the Angle of Draw

Effect of Thickness of Seam Extracted and of Goaf Support

Prediction of the Complete Subsidence Profile

Ground Strain Profiles

The Time Factor in Subsidence Ground Movements

Effects of the Traveling Wave on the Surface

Restricted Workings

Support Afforded by Block Pillar Workings

Effects of Alternative Layout

Workings in Adjacent Seams

References and Bibliography


New Horizons in Geotechnology

The Future of Mining Technology

The Utilization of Underground Space

Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1981
1st January 1981
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

A. Roberts

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