Applications of Soil Physics

Applications of Soil Physics

1st Edition - October 28, 1980

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  • Author: Daniel Hillel
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152136

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Applications of Soil Physics deals with the applications of soil physics and covers topics ranging from infiltration and surface runoff to groundwater drainage, evaporation from bare-surface soils, and uptake of soil moisture by plants. Water balance and energy balance in the field are also discussed, along with tillage and soil structure management. The development and extension of Penman's evaporation formula is also described. This book is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a systematic description of the field-water cycle and its management, with emphasis on infiltration and runoff; redistribution and drainage; evaporation and transpiration; and irrigation and tillage. Subsequent chapters focus on transpiration from plant canopies; freezing phenomena in soils; scaling and similitude of soil-water phenomena; spatial variability of soil physical properties; and movement of solutes during infiltration into homogeneous soil. Concepts of soil-water availability to plants are considered, together with principles of irrigation management and the advantages and limitations of drip irrigation. This monograph is intended for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students of the environmental, engineering, and agronomic sciences.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Soil Physics Explores the Hidden Turmoil in the Field

    Part I: The Field Water Cycle and Its Management

    2. Infiltration and Surface Runoff

    A. Introduction

    B. "Infiltration Capacity" or Infiltrability

    C. Profile Moisture Distribution during Infiltration

    D. Infiltrability Equations

    E. The Green and Ampt Approach

    F. Modern Approaches to Infiltration Theory

    G. Infiltration into Layered Profiles

    H. Infiltration into Crust-Topped Soils

    I. Instability of Wetting Fronts during Infiltration

    J. Rain Infiltration

    K. Some Topics of Current Research on Infiltration

    L. Surface Runoff

    M. Runoff Inducement

    Sample Problems

    3. Internal Drainage and Redistribution Following Infiltration

    A. Introduction

    B. Internal Drainage in Thoroughly Wetted Profiles

    C. Redistribution of Soil Moisture in Partially Wetted Profiles

    D. Hysteretic Phenomena in Redistribution

    D. Analysis of Redistribution Processes

    F. "Field Capacity"

    G. Summary of Factors Affecting Field Capacity

    Sample Problems

    4. Groundwater Drainage

    A. Introduction: Some Basic Concepts of Groundwater Hydrology

    B. Flow of Confined Groundwater

    C. Flow of Unconfined Groundwater

    D. Analysis of Falling Water Table

    E. Review of Equations Pertaining to Flow

    Unconfined Groundwater

    F. Flow Nets, Models, and Analogs

    G. Groundwater Drainage

    H. Factors Influencing Drainage

    I. Drainage Design Equations

    Sample Problems

    5. Evaporation from Bare-Surface Soils

    A. Introduction

    B. Physical Conditions

    C. Capillary Rise from a Water Table

    D. Steady Evaporation in the Presence of a Water Table

    E. Hazard of Salinization Due to High Water Table

    F. Evaporation in the Absence of a Water Table (Drying)

    G. Analysis of the First and Second Stages of Drying

    H. The "Drying-Front" Phenomenon

    I. Diurnal Fluctuations of Surface-Zone Moisture and Hysteresis Effects

    J. Nonisothermal Evaporation

    K. Effect of Albedo Changes on Nonisothermal Evaporation

    L. Evaporation from Irregular Surfaces and Shrinkage Cracks

    M. Reduction of Evaporation from Bare Soils

    Sample Problems

    6. Uptake of Soil Moisture by Plants

    A. Introduction

    B. The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum

    C. Basic Aspects of Plant-Water Relations

    D. Water Relation of Plant Cells and Tissues

    E. Structure and Function of Roots

    F. Hydraulic Properties of Roots

    G. Variation of Water Potential and Flux in the Soil-Plant System

    H. Root Uptake, Soil-Water Movement, and Transpiration

    I. Approaches to Modeling Water Uptake by Roots

    J. The Single-Root Radial (Microscopic) Model

    K. The Root System (Macroscopic) Model

    L. Effect of Root Growth on Soil-Water Uptake

    Sample Problems

    7. Water Balance and Energy Balance in the Field

    A. Introduction

    B. Water Balance of the Root Zone

    C. Evaluation of the Water Balance

    D. Radiation Exchange in the Field

    E. Total Energy Balance

    F. Transport of Heat and Vapor to the Atmosphere

    G. Advection

    H. Potential Evapotranspiration (Combination Formulas)

    Sample Problems

    8. Irrigation and Crop Response

    A. Introduction

    B. Classical Concepts of Soil-Water Availability to Plants

    C. Traditional Principles of Irrigation Management

    D. Newer Concepts of Soil-Water Availability to Plants

    E. New Principles of Irrigation Management

    F. Advantages and Limitations of Drip Irrigation

    G. Irrigation, Water-Use Efficiency, and Water Conservation

    H. Transpiration in Relation to Production

    Sample Problems

    9. Tillage and Soil Structure Management

    A. Introduction

    B. Definition and Aims of Tillage

    C. Traditional and Modern Approaches to Tillage

    D. Problems of Tillage Research

    E. Physical Aspects of Machine-Soil Interactions

    F. Operation of Tillage Tools

    Part II: Extensions

    10. The Development and Extension of Penman's Evaporation Formula

    A. Introduction

    B. Extension

    C. Deductions

    D. Plant Physiology and Soil Physics

    11. Freezing Phenomena in Soils

    A. Introduction

    B. Terminology: Water

    C. The Freezing Temperature Equation

    D. Frost Heave—A Solution Analog

    E. Terminology: Soil

    F. Adsorption Forces: The Double Layer Model

    G. Surface Tension Effects

    H. Similitude

    I. Metastability and Nucleation

    J. Three Pore Phases; Freezing-Induced Redistribution

    K. Regelation

    L. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductivity of Frozen Soil

    M. Hydraulic Conductivity—SS Soil

    N. Stress Partition

    O. Frost Heave—Contrasts

    P. Primary Frost Heaving

    Q. Secondary Frost Heaving

    R. Freezing and Solutes

    S. Closure

    12. Similitude and Scaling of Soil-Water Phenomena

    A. Introduction

    B. Microscopic (Pore Level) Scaling of ST VF Porous Media

    C. Macroscopic Scaling (Averaged over Many Pores)

    D. Telescoping of Flow System Solutions

    E. Consequence: What Does It Mean?

    F. Applications

    13. Spatial Variability of Soil Physical Properties in the Field

    A. Introduction

    B. Expressing Variability

    C. Measured Values

    D. Sample Numbers

    E. Scaling as a Tool for Data Synthesis

    F. Ramifications of Variability—Numerical Examples

    G. Autocorrelation and Spatial Analysis

    H. Discussion

    14. Solute Transport during Infiltration into Homogeneous Soil

    A. Introduction

    B. Horizontal Infiltration

    C. Vertical Infiltration

    D. Summary



Product details

  • No. of pages: 400
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1980
  • Published: October 28, 1980
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152136

About the Author

Daniel Hillel

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