Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123562401, 9780323154130

Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting

1st Edition

Editors: Donald Horrocks
eBook ISBN: 9780323154130
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1974
Page Count: 362
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Description

Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting deals with liquid scintillation counting and its applications in fields such as the biosciences, medicine, environmental and space sciences, chemistry, and physics. These applications include dual-labeled counting; Cerenkov counting; radioimmunoassay, chemiluminescence and bioluminescence; pulse shape discrimination; flow cell counting; and large-volume counters. This book is comprised of 18 chapters and begins with a historical overview of the liquid scintillation method, the first liquid scintillation counters, and early scintillator solutes. The following chapters focus on the theory of liquid scintillation counting; the components of the liquid scintillator solution; and the development of the liquid scintillation counter and multiplier phototubes. The discussion then turns to the detection and measurement of different types of particles produced by radionuclides using liquid scintillation techniques; the techniques and problems of sample preparations (homogeneous and heterogeneous); oxidation techniques; and importance and difference of several types of counting vials. The sources of quenching in counting samples and methods of monitoring and correction for variable quench within samples are also considered. Several special applications of liquid scintillation techniques are presented, including dual-labeled counting, radioimmunoassay, and flow cell counting. In conclusion, the statistical considerations involved in determining the reliability and accuracy of data obtained by nuclear counting techniques are highlighted. This monograph will serve as a reliable source of information for those who are already using or starting to use liquid scintillation counting techniques.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter I. Introduction

Early History of the Liquid Scintillation Method

First Liquid Scintillation Counters

Early Scintillator Solutes

Other Early Contributions

Previous Books

References

Chapter II. Basic Processes

Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter

Scintillation in Organic Material

Absorption Spectrum

Energy Transfer

Solvent-Solvent Transfer

Solvent-Solute Transfer

Solute-Solute Energy Transfer

Energy Transfer in Liquid Scintillation Solutions

Fluorescence

Scintillation Efficiency

Counting Efficiency

References

Chapter III. Scintillator Solutions

Solvents

Solutes

Concentration Dependency

Elimination of Concentration Quenching

Increased Solute Solubility

Solute Stability

Secondary Solutes

Some Common Liquid Scintillators

References

Chapter IV. Liquid Scintillation Counters and Multiplier Phototubes

Pulse Summation

Mode of Standardization

Sample Handling

Correction for Sample Quench

Data Computation

Multiplier Phototubes

The Photocathode

Dynodes

Number of Electrons per Indident Electron

Anode

Other Factors Affecting Multiplier Phototubes

References

Chapter V. Particle Counting Techniques

Response to Different Radiations

Counting Beta Emitters

Counting Other Electron Emitters

Counting Alpha Emitters

Counting Gamma Emitters

Neutron-Proton Counting

Counting Fission Events

Nuclear Applications

References

Chapter VI. Preparation of Counting Samples

Direct Solubilization

Solubilization Techniques

Heterogeneous Samples

References

Chapter VII. Oxidation Techniques

Wet Oxidation

Dry Oxidation

Static Combustion

Dynamic Combustion

References

Chapter VIII. Counting Vials

References

Chapter IX. Background

Noise

Cross Talk and Gas Discharges

Cerenkov and Cosmic Radiation

Natural Radioactivity

Chemiluminescence

Photoluminescence

References

Chapter X. Quench Correction Methods

Quench Monitoring Methods

Techniques of Constant Counting Efficiency

References

Chapter XI. Dual-Labeled Counting

Simultaneous Determination

Different Particle Emission

Different Half-life

Different Counting Methods

Different Modes of Decay

14C-3H Dual Label

Separation of Labeling Radionuclides

References

Chapter XII. Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence

Basic Processes

Chemiluminescence

Chemiluminescence and Liquid Scintillation Counting

Influence of Solutes

Effect of Temperature

Detection of Chemiluminescence

Causes of Chemiluminescence in Liquid Scintillators

Reducing Chemiluminescence

Bioluminescence

References

Chapter XIII. Radioimmunoassay

Reference

Chapter XIV. Cerenkov Counting

Cerenkov Effect

Cerenkov Counting Efficiency

Quenching Effects

References

Chapter XV. Pulse Shape Discrimination

Pulse Shape Discrimination Electronic Circuits

Performance

Applications

Limits to Pulse Shape Discrimination

References

Chapter XVI. Flow Cell Counting

Discrete Flow Cells

Continuous Flow Cells

Two-Phased Flow Cells

Single-Phased Flow Cells

Flow Cell Application to Measuring Tritium in Water

References

Chapter XVII. Large-Volume Counters

Whole-Body Counters

Other Applications

Solvent Requirements

References

Chapter XVIII. Statistical Considerations

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
362
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323154130

About the Editor

Donald Horrocks