Applications of Fluoropolymer Films

Applications of Fluoropolymer Films

Properties, Processing, and Products

1st Edition - January 15, 2020

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  • Author: Jiri George Drobny
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128163023
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128161289

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Description

Applications of Fluoropolymer Films: Properties, Processing, and Products presents an overview of fluoropolymer films, manufacturing methods, typical properties, and commercial grades for each type of fluoropolymer film. The second part of the book is uniquely focused on the applications of fluoropolymer films, with detailed information on their use in cutting-edge items across major industries, including aerospace and automotive, architectural, chemical processing, construction, consumer products, electronics, food packaging, pharmaceuticals and solar energy.

Key Features

  • Presents a focused approach on the practical applications of fluoropolymer films, supporting their use in state-of-the-art products across a range of industries
  • Contains detailed coverage of manufacturing methods, properties and commercial grades for fluoropolymer films
  • Unlocks the potential of the advanced properties offered by fluoropolymer films

Readership

Industry: Engineers, designers, scientists, and R&D professionals involved in the development of fluoropolymers and/or polymer films, or manufacturing products that use fluoropolymer films. Academia: Advanced students, researchers and scientists in polymer chemistry, polymer science and engineering, chemical engineering, and processing technology

Table of Contents

  • Part I Materials, Technology, and Properties 1

    1. 1 Introduction 3
    2. 1.1 Definitions 5
    3. 1.1.1 Polymeric Films and Sheets 5
    4. 1.1.2 Fluoropolymers 6
    5. 1.2 Manufacturing Methods for the Production of Films From Melt-Processible Thermoplastics 9
    6. 1.2.1 Film Extrusion 9
    7. 1.2.2 Film Extrusion Methods 14
    8. 1.3 Secondary Processing of Thermoplastic Films 22
    9. 1.3.1 Surface Preparation of Thermoplastic Films 23
    10. 1.3.2 Lamination of Thermoplastic Films 26
    11. 1.3.3 Heat Sealing of Thermoplastic Films 28
    12. 1.3.4 Metallization of Thermoplastic Films 29
    13. 1.3.5 Orientation 31

    References 36

    2 Materials for Fluoropolymer Films and Sheets 39

    1. 2.1 Perfluoroethylene (Polytetrafluoroethylene) 39
    2. 2.1.1 Industrial Process for Production of Polytetrafluoroethylene 39
    3. 2.1.2 Structure and Related Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene 41
    4. 2.1.3 General Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene 43
    5. 2.1.4 Forms of PTFE Resins for Films and Sheets 46
    6. 2.1.5 Modified Polytetrafluoroethylene 46
    7. 2.1.6 Processing of PTFE 47
    8. 2.1.7 Applications for Polytetrafluoroethylene 47

    2.2 Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers 49

    1. 2.2.1 Industrial Process for the Production of Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers 50
    2. 2.2.2 Structure and Related Properties of Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers 54
    3. 2.2.3 Processing of Melt-Processible Fluoroplastics 60
    4. 2.2.4 Applications for Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers 65
    5. 2.3 Other Thermoplastic Fluoropolymers 69
    6. 2.3.1 Industrial Processes for the Production of Other Thermoplastic Fluoropolymers 69
    7. 2.3.2 Structure and Related Properties of Other Thermoplastic Fluoropolymers 71
    8. 2.3.3 Processing of Other Thermoplastic Fluoropolymers 74
    9. 2.3.4 Applications for Other Thermoplastic Fluoropolymers 76

    References 77

    3 Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 85

    1. 3.1 Manufacturing Methods for the Production of Polytetrafluoroethylene Films and Sheets 85
    2. 3.1.1 Skived Polytetrafluoroethylene Films and Sheets 85
    3. 3.1.2 Extruded Unsintered Polytetrafluoroethylene Films and Tapes 93
    4. 3.1.3 Process for Unsupported Cast Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 99
    5. 3.1.4 Process for Supported Cast Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 103
    6. 3.1.5 Laminates 104

    References 105

    4 Films from Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers 107

    1. 4.1 Production of FEP Films 107
    2. 4.1.1 Materials 107
    3. 4.1.2 Equipment 107
    4. 4.1.3 Process Conditions 107
    5. 4.2 Production of PFA and MFA Films 108
    6. 4.2.1 Materials 108 4.2.2 Equipment 108
    7. 4.2.3 Process Conditions 108
    8. 4.3 Production of ETFE Films 109
    9. 4.3.1 Materials 109
    10. 4.3.2 Equipment 109
    11. 4.3.3 Process Conditions 109
    12. 4.4 Production of PVDF Films 109
    13. 4.4.1 Materials 109
    14. 4.4.2 Equipment 110
    15. 4.4.3 Process Conditions 110
    16. 4.5 Production of PCTFE Films 110
    17. 4.5.1 Materials 110 4.5.2 Equipment 110
    18. 4.5.3 Process Conditions 110
    19. 4.6 Production of ECTFE Films 111
    20. 4.6.1 Materials 111 4.6.2 Equipment 111
    21. 4.6.3 Process Conditions 111
    22. 4.7 Production of THV Films 111
    23. 4.7.1 Materials 111
    24. 4.7.2 Equipment 112
    25. 4.7.3 Process Conditions 112
    26. 4.8 Production of Films From Other Thermoplastic Fluoropolymers Films 112
    27. 4.8.1 Production of Films From Fluorinated Thermoplastic Elastomers 112
    28. 4.8.2 Production of Films From Amorphous Perfluoropolymers 113

    References 114

    5 Films from Polyvinyl Fluoride 115

    1. 5.1 Properties of Polyvinyl Fluoride 115
    2. 5.2 Processing Polyvinyl Fluoride 116
    3. 5.3 Manufacturing of Unoriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Films 117
    4. 5.4 Manufacturing of Oriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Films 118
    5. 5.4.1 Polyvinyl Fluoride Dispersion in the Latent Solvent 118
    6. 5.4.2 Film Extrusion 119
    7. 5.4.3 Biaxial Orientation 120

    References 122

    6 Secondary Processing of Fluoropolymer Films 125

    1. 6.1 Surface Preparation of Fluoropolymer Films 125
    2. 6.1.1 Corona Treatment of Fluoropolymer Films 125
    3. 6.1.2 Sodium Etching of Fluoropolymer Films 125
    4. 6.1.3 Plasma Treatment of Fluoropolymer Films 126
    5. 6.1.4 Flame Treatment of Fluoropolymer Films 126
    6. 6.2 Lamination of Fluoropolymer Films 127
    7. 6.3 Heat Sealing of Fluoropolymer Films 127
    8. 6.4 Metallization of Fluoropolymer Films 127
    9. 6.5 Orientation of Fluoropolymer Films 128
    10. 6.6 Other Methods for Secondary Processing of Fluoropolymer Films 128
    11. 6.6.1 Laser Marking of Fluoropolymer Films 128
    12. 6.6.2 Laser Cutting of Fluoropolymer Films 129
    13. 6.6.3 Printing on Fluoropolymer Films 129
    14. 6.6.4 Thermoforming of Fluoropolymer Films 130

    References 131

    7 Testing of Thermoplastic Films 133

    1. 7.1 Standards for Testing of Mechanical Properties 133
    2. 7.2 Standards for Testing of Thermal Properties 134
    3. 7.2.1 Heat Aging 134
    4. 7.2.2 Thermal Stability 134
    5. 7.2.3 Heat Sealability 134
    6. 7.2.4 Shrinkage 134
    7. 7.2.5 Linear Coefficient of Expansion 134
    8. 7.2.6 Continuous Use Temperature 135 7.3 Standards for Testing of Electrical Properties 135
    9. 7.4 Standards for Testing of Barrier Properties 135
    10. 7.5 Standards for Testing of Optical Properties 136
    11. 7.5.1 Refractive Index 136
    12. 7.5.2 Optical Transmission 136
    13. 7.6 Standards for Testing of Chemical Resistance 136
    14. 7.7 Standards for Testing of Surface Properties 136
    15. 7.7.1 Critical Surface Energy 136 7.7.2 Contact Angle 136
    16. 7.8 Standards for Testing of Thermal Stability 136
    17. 7.9 Standards for Testing of Weatherability 137
    18. 7.9.1 Accelerated Testing Methods 137
    19. 7.9.2 Outdoor Testing Methods 137

    References 137

    8 Safety, Hygiene, Disposal, Recycling of Fluoropolymer Films 139

    1. 8.1 Safety, Hygiene, and Disposal of Fluoropolymer Films 139
    2. 8.1.1 Toxicology of Fluoroplastics 139
    3. 8.1.2 Thermal Behavior of Fluoroplastics 139
    4. 8.1.3 Medical Applications of Fluoroplastics 141
    5. 8.1.4 Food Contact 141
    6. 8.1.5 Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods for Fluoroplastics 142
    7. 8.2 Recycling of Fluoropolymer Films 142

    References 143

    Part II Typical Properties of and Applications for Fluoropolymer Films 145

    9 Polytetrafluoroethylene Films—Typical Properties and Applications 147

    1. 9.1 Skived Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 147
    2. 9.2 Cast Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 147
    3. 9.3 Unsintered Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 150
    4. References 150

    10 FEP Films, Typical Properties and Applications 151

    References 152

    11 Perfluoroalkoxy Resin Films—Typical Properties 153

    11.1 PFA Films 153

    11.2 MFA Films 154

    References 155

    12 ETFE Films—Typical Properties and Applications 157

    References 158

    13 PCTFE Films—Typical Properties and Applications 159

    Further Reading 160

    14 ECTFE Films—Typical Properties and Applications 161

    References 162

    15 PVDF Films—Typical Properties and Applications 163

    References 164

    16 THV Films—Typical Properties 165

    Reference 166

    17 Teflon AF Films—Typical Properties 167

    Reference 168

    18 DAI-EL T-530 Films—Typical Properties 169

    Reference 170

    19 Polyvinyl Fluoride Films—Typical Properties and Applications 171

    References 173

    Part III Commercial Grades of Fluoropolymer Films and Their Applications 175

    20 Commercial Grades of Fluoropolymer Films 177

    1. 20.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 177
    2. 20.1.1 Skived Films 177 20.1.2 Cast Films 177
    3. 20.1.3 Unsintered Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 180
    4. 20.2 Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Films 180
    5. 20.3 Perfluoroalkoxy Polymer Films 185
    6. 20.3.1 Films From PFA Resins 188
    7. 20.3.2 Films From MFA Resins 192
    8. 20.4 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer Films 198
    9. 20.5 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Films 198
    10. 20.6 Ethylene-Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer Films 202
    11. 20.7 Polyvinylidene Fluoride Films 211
    12. 20.8 THV Fluoroplastic Films 216
    13. 20.9 Teflon AF Fluoroplastic Films 216
    14. 20.10 Polyvinyl Fluoride Films 222
    15. 20.10.1 Oriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Films 222
    16. 20.10.2 Unoriented Polyvinyl Fluoride Films 222
    17. 20.10.3 Classification of Polyvinyl Fluoride Films 225
    18. References 233 

    21 Applications for Commercial Fluoropolymer Films 235

    1. 21.1 Applications for Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 235
    2. 21.1.1 Applications for Skived Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 235
    3. 21.1.2 Applications for Cast Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 241
    4. 21.1.3 Applications for Unsintered Polytetrafluoroethylene Films 242
    5. 21.2 Applications for Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Films 242
    6. 21.3 Applications for Perfluoroalkoxy Resin Films 243
    7. 21.3.1 Applications to Perfluoroalkoxy Resin Films 243
    8. 21.3.2 Applications for MFA Films 243
    9. 21.4 Applications for Copolymer of Ethylene and Tetrafluoroethylene Films 244
    10. 21.5 Applications for Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Films 245
    11. 21.6 Applications for Copolymer of Ethylene and Chlorotrifluoroethylene Films 246
    12. 21.7 Applications for Polyvinylidene Fluoride Films 251
    13. 21.8 Applications for Terpolymer of Tetrafluoroethylene, HFP, and VDF Films 252
    14. 21.9 Applications for Teflon AF Films 252 21.10 Applications for Polyvinyl Fluoride Films 253
    15. 21.11 Applications for Fluoropolymer Films by Industries and Activities 256
    16. References 256

    Appendix 1: Major Fluoropolymer Film Manufacturers, Suppliers, and Distributors 257

    Appendix 2: Trade Names of Common Commercial Fluoropolymers 261

    Appendix 3: Acronyms and Abbreviations 263

    Appendix 4: Glossary of Terms 267

    Appendix 5: Tedlar Film Designation Guide 277

    Bibliography 279

    Index 281

     

Product details

  • No. of pages: 314
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2020
  • Published: January 15, 2020
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128163023
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128161289

About the Author

Jiri George Drobny

Jiri G. Drobny is President of Drobny Polymer Associates, and former Adjunct Faculty of Plastics Engineering at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Drobny is an active educator, lecturer, writer, and internationally known consultant. His career spans more than 40 years in the rubber and plastic processing industry, mainly in research and development with senior and executive responsibilities.

Affiliations and Expertise

Drobny Polymer Associates, Inc.

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