Aphids as Virus Vectors

Aphids as Virus Vectors

1st Edition - June 28, 1977

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  • Editors: Kerry F. Harris, Karl Maramorosch
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273884

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Aphids as Virus Vectors focuses on aphids as vectors of plant viruses and the fundamentals of their relationship with virus and host. The mouthparts and feeding mechanism of aphids are discussed, along with aphid penetration of plant tissues and the transmission mechanisms of aphids as virus vectors. The intrinsic properties and taxonomy of aphid-borne viruses are also examined. Comprised of 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the importance of aphids as vectors, their biology, and the properties of the viruses they transmit. These introductory chapters prepare the reader for later ones on aphid-virus-plant interactions. The next section deals with transmission mechanisms, with emphasis on several novel alternatives to many of the traditionally held concepts of how aphids transmit viruses. Accessory factors in non-persistent virus transmission are considered. Subsequent chapters focus on technological advances in aphid-virus research, including the use of aphid cell culturing, radioisotope methodology, membrane feeding, and electrical measurement systems. The most promising frontiers in epidemiological and control-oriented research are discussed in the last two sections. This monograph will be a useful resource for researchers from such varied sciences as entomology, plant science, and virology, as well as for graduate students taking entomology and plant pathology courses on insects in relation to plant diseases.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Part I Aphid Vectors

    Chapter 1. Worldwide Importance of Aphids as Virus Vectors

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Biology of the Major Groups of Aphids

    1.3 Distribution of Aphids and the Viruses They Transmit

    1.4 The Attributes of Aphids Most Affecting Their Abilities as Virus Vectors

    1.5 The Physiological Condition of the Host

    1.6 The Effects of Other Organisms

    1.7 Weather, Aphids and Viruses

    1.8 Aphids and Viruses for Weed Control

    1.9 Sources of Information About Aphids

    1.10 References

    Chapter 2. Anatomy of An Aphid Vector: Myzus Persicae

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Alimentary Canal

    2.3 Salivary Gland

    2.4 Mesodermal Derivatives

    2.5 Mycetome

    2.6 Oenocytes

    2.7 Circulatory System

    2.8 Respiratory System

    2.9 Nervous System

    2.10 Reproductive System

    2.11 References

    Chapter 3. The Mouthparts and Feeding Mechanism of Aphids

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 General Morphology of the Head and Organs of Ingestion

    3.3 Mouthparts

    3.4 Sucking Pump

    3.5 Gustatory Sense Organs

    3.6 Foregut

    3.7 Esophageal Valve

    3.8 References

    Chapter 4. Aphid Penetration of Plant Tissues

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Physical Aspects of Penetration

    4.3 Physiological Aspects of Penetration

    4.4 References

    Part II Aphid-Borne Viruses

    Chapter 5. Intrinsic Properties and Taxonomy of Aphid-Borne Viruses

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Activities of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses

    5.3 Groups of Aphid-Transmitted Viruses

    5.4 References

    Chapter 6. Properties of an Aphid-Borne Virus: Pea Enation Mosaic Virus

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Properties of the Particles

    6.3 Infectivity of Components of PEMV

    6.4 Stabilization of PEMV Particles

    6.5 Strains of PEMV

    6.6 Discussion

    6.7 References

    Part III Transmission Mechanisms

    Chapter 7. An Ingestion-Egestion Hypothesis of Noncirculative Virus Transmission

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Nonpersistent, Noncirculative Transmission

    7.3 Fitting the Ingestion-Egestion Hypothesis to Observable Transmission Characteristics

    7.4 Ingestion-Egestion Transmission Mechanism and Control-Oriented Research

    7.5 Circulative Transmission

    7.6 Closing Remarks

    7.7 Acknowledgments

    7.8 References

    Chapter 8. Accessory Factors in Nonpersistent Virus Transmission

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 The Helper Component Produced in Virus-Infected Plants

    8.3 Polyamino Acid Induced Virus Transmission

    8.4 Comparison of Helper Component and Polyamino Acid Mediated Transmission

    8.5 Prospects

    8.6 Acknowledgments

    8.7 References

    Chapter 9. Bimodal Transmission of Plant Viruses

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Characteristics of Bimodal Transmission

    9.3 Transmission of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) by Aphids

    9.4 Properties and Transmission of Pea Seed-Borne Mosaic Virus (PSbMV) by Aphids

    9.5 A Discussion of Some Viruses That Are Believed to be Bimodally Transmitted by Aphids

    9.6 Explanation of the Bimodal Transmission Phenomenon

    9.7 Effects of Formaldehyde and Ultraviolet Irradiation on Bimodal Viruses

    9.8 Location of a Bimodally Transmitted Virus (PBbMV) on Its Vector Stylets

    9.9 Speculations on the Nature of Virus-Stylet Interaction

    9.10 Acknowledgments

    9.11 References

    Chapter 10. Dependent Virus Transmission from Mixed Infections

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Examples of Dependent Transmission

    10.3 Heterologous Encapsidation

    10.4 Barley Yellow Dwarf

    10.5 Potential of Heterologous Encapsidation in Nature

    10.6 Perspectives

    10.7 Acknowledgments

    10.8 References

    Part IV Technological Advances in Aphid-Virus Research

    Chapter 11. An Electrical Measurement System for Studying Aphid Probing Behavior

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Description of the Measurement System

    11.3 Noise

    11.4 Grounding

    11.5 Interpretation of the Results

    11.6 References

    Chapter 12. Radioisotopes in Aphid Research

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Application of Suitable Radioisotopes

    12.3 Use of Radioisotopes to Indicate Penetration of Stylets into the Phloem and Beginning of Food Uptake

    12.4 Ingestion of Radiotracers with Food

    12.5 Excretion of Radioisotopes

    12.6 Special Tracer Experiments with Aphids

    12.7 Radiation Load and the Question of Radiation Damage

    12.8 References

    Chapter 13. Membrane Feeding Systems in Aphid Research

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 An Up-to-Date List of Aphid Species Reared on Complex Diets

    13.3 Chemical Formulations of Diets

    13.4 Method of Preparing Diets and Sachets, and Using Simple Cages

    13.5 Problems with Membrane-Feeding Systems and Interpretation of Results

    13.6 Acknowledgments

    13.7 References

    Chapter 14. Aphid Cell Cultures

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Establishment of Aphid Cell Cultures

    14.3 Uses of Aphid Cell Cultures in Virus Research

    14.4 Other Uses of Aphid Cell Cultures

    14.5 Prospects and Tasks for the Future

    14.6 Acknowledgment

    14.7 References

    Part V Epidemiology of Aphid-Borne Viruses

    Chapter 15. Aphids, Viruses, and The Yellow Plague

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 The Yellow Plague

    15.3 Beet Western Yellows Virus

    15.4 Discussion

    15.5 References

    Chapter 16. Epidemiology of Aphid-Borne Viruses

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Biological Aspects

    16.3 Physical Factors Affecting Virus Spread

    16.4 Cultural Practices Influencing the Amount of Virus Spread

    16.5 Concluding Remarks

    16.6 References

    Chapter 17. Plant Virus Epidemiology and Computer Simulation of Aphid Populations

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Approaches to an Epidemiology of Plant Virus Diseases

    17.3 Computer Simulation Models of Aphid Population Dynamics

    17.4 A Computer Simulation Model of Plant Virus Epidemiology

    17.5 Discussion

    17.6 Acknowledgments

    17.7 References

    Part VI Promising Frontiers in Control-Oriented Research

    Chapter 18. Oils and Other Inhibitors of Nonpersistent Virus Transmission

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Mode of Action of Oils on the Transmission of Viruses by Aphids

    18.3 Properties of Oils Linked to the Inhibition of Virus Transmission by Aphids

    18.4 Field Experiments with Oil Sprays to Prevent the Spread of Aphid-Borne Viruses

    18.5 Other Inhibitors of Transmission of Nonpersistent Viruses

    18.6 Conclusions

    18.7 References

    Chapter 19. Inhibition of Plant Virus Infections by Antiviral Agents

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Natural Source of Antiviral Agents

    19.3 Synthetic Sources

    19.4 Mechanism of Virus Inhibition

    19.5 Recent Advance and Practical Applications

    19.6 Summary and Conclusions

    19.7 References

    Chapter 20. Breeding Plants for Resistance to Aphid Infestation

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Mechanisms of Plant Resistance

    20.3 Obtaining Resistant Cultivars

    20.4 Aphid Resistance and the Spread of Viruses

    20.5 Concluding Remarks

    20.6 References

    Chapter 21. Resistance to the Aphid-Borne Viruses in the Potato

    21.1 The Potato and Aphid-Borne Viruses

    21.2 Types of Resistance

    21.3 Testing for Resistance

    21.4 Resistance to the Individual Viruses

    21.5 The Aphid and Resistance: How Do They Relate?

    21.6 What Is Resistance?

    21.7 Resistance in Today's Perspective

    21.8 And Tomorrow

    21.9 Acknowledgments

    21.10 References

    Chapter 22. Aphid Pheromones

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Aggregation Pheromones

    22.3 Alarm Pheromones

    22.4 Aphid Sex Pheromones

    22.5 Uses of Pheromones to Reduce Virus Spread by Aphids

    22.6 Acknowledgments

    22.7 References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: June 28, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273884

About the Editors

Kerry F. Harris

Karl Maramorosch

Professor Karl Maramorosch works at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

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