Aphids as Virus Vectors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123275509, 9781483273884

Aphids as Virus Vectors

1st Edition

Editors: Kerry F. Harris Karl Maramorosch
eBook ISBN: 9781483273884
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th June 1977
Page Count: 576
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Aphids as Virus Vectors focuses on aphids as vectors of plant viruses and the fundamentals of their relationship with virus and host. The mouthparts and feeding mechanism of aphids are discussed, along with aphid penetration of plant tissues and the transmission mechanisms of aphids as virus vectors. The intrinsic properties and taxonomy of aphid-borne viruses are also examined.

Comprised of 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the importance of aphids as vectors, their biology, and the properties of the viruses they transmit. These introductory chapters prepare the reader for later ones on aphid-virus-plant interactions. The next section deals with transmission mechanisms, with emphasis on several novel alternatives to many of the traditionally held concepts of how aphids transmit viruses. Accessory factors in non-persistent virus transmission are considered. Subsequent chapters focus on technological advances in aphid-virus research, including the use of aphid cell culturing, radioisotope methodology, membrane feeding, and electrical measurement systems. The most promising frontiers in epidemiological and control-oriented research are discussed in the last two sections.

This monograph will be a useful resource for researchers from such varied sciences as entomology, plant science, and virology, as well as for graduate students taking entomology and plant pathology courses on insects in relation to plant diseases.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Part I Aphid Vectors

Chapter 1. Worldwide Importance of Aphids as Virus Vectors

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Biology of the Major Groups of Aphids

1.3 Distribution of Aphids and the Viruses They Transmit

1.4 The Attributes of Aphids Most Affecting Their Abilities as Virus Vectors

1.5 The Physiological Condition of the Host

1.6 The Effects of Other Organisms

1.7 Weather, Aphids and Viruses

1.8 Aphids and Viruses for Weed Control

1.9 Sources of Information About Aphids

1.10 References

Chapter 2. Anatomy of An Aphid Vector: Myzus Persicae

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Alimentary Canal

2.3 Salivary Gland

2.4 Mesodermal Derivatives

2.5 Mycetome

2.6 Oenocytes

2.7 Circulatory System

2.8 Respiratory System

2.9 Nervous System

2.10 Reproductive System

2.11 References

Chapter 3. The Mouthparts and Feeding Mechanism of Aphids

3.1 Introduction

3.2 General Morphology of the Head and Organs of Ingestion

3.3 Mouthparts

3.4 Sucking Pump

3.5 Gustatory Sense Organs

3.6 Foregut

3.7 Esophageal Valve

3.8 References

Chapter 4. Aphid Penetration of Plant Tissues

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Physical Aspects of Penetration

4.3 Physiological Aspects of Penetration

4.4 References

Part II Aphid-Borne Viruses

Chapter 5. Intrinsic Properties and Taxonomy of Aphid-Borne Viruses

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Activities of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses

5.3 Groups of Aphid-Transmitted Viruses

5.4 References

Chapter 6. Properties of an Aphid-Borne Virus: Pea Enation Mosaic Virus

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Properties of the Particles

6.3 Infectivity of Components of PEMV

6.4 Stabilization of PEMV Particles

6.5 Strains of PEMV

6.6 Discussion

6.7 References

Part III Transmission Mechanisms

Chapter 7. An Ingestion-Egestion Hypothesis of Noncirculative Virus Transmission

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Nonpersistent, Noncirculative Transmission

7.3 Fitting the Ingestion-Egestion Hypothesis to Observable Transmission Characteristics

7.4 Ingestion-Egestion Transmission Mechanism and Control-Oriented Research

7.5 Circulative Transmission

7.6 Closing Remarks

7.7 Acknowledgments

7.8 References

Chapter 8. Accessory Factors in Nonpersistent Virus Transmission

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Helper Component Produced in Virus-Infected Plants

8.3 Polyamino Acid Induced Virus Transmission

8.4 Comparison of Helper Component and Polyamino Acid Mediated Transmission

8.5 Prospects

8.6 Acknowledgments

8.7 References

Chapter 9. Bimodal Transmission of Plant Viruses

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Characteristics of Bimodal Transmission

9.3 Transmission of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) by Aphids

9.4 Properties and Transmission of Pea Seed-Borne Mosaic Virus (PSbMV) by Aphids

9.5 A Discussion of Some Viruses That Are Believed to be Bimodally Transmitted by Aphids

9.6 Explanation of the Bimodal Transmission Phenomenon

9.7 Effects of Formaldehyde and Ultraviolet Irradiation on Bimodal Viruses

9.8 Location of a Bimodally Transmitted Virus (PBbMV) on Its Vector Stylets

9.9 Speculations on the Nature of Virus-Stylet Interaction

9.10 Acknowledgments

9.11 References

Chapter 10. Dependent Virus Transmission from Mixed Infections

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Examples of Dependent Transmission

10.3 Heterologous Encapsidation

10.4 Barley Yellow Dwarf

10.5 Potential of Heterologous Encapsidation in Nature

10.6 Perspectives

10.7 Acknowledgments

10.8 References

Part IV Technological Advances in Aphid-Virus Research

Chapter 11. An Electrical Measurement System for Studying Aphid Probing Behavior

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Description of the Measurement System

11.3 Noise

11.4 Grounding

11.5 Interpretation of the Results

11.6 References

Chapter 12. Radioisotopes in Aphid Research

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Application of Suitable Radioisotopes

12.3 Use of Radioisotopes to Indicate Penetration of Stylets into the Phloem and Beginning of Food Uptake

12.4 Ingestion of Radiotracers with Food

12.5 Excretion of Radioisotopes

12.6 Special Tracer Experiments with Aphids

12.7 Radiation Load and the Question of Radiation Damage

12.8 References

Chapter 13. Membrane Feeding Systems in Aphid Research

13.1 Introduction

13.2 An Up-to-Date List of Aphid Species Reared on Complex Diets

13.3 Chemical Formulations of Diets

13.4 Method of Preparing Diets and Sachets, and Using Simple Cages

13.5 Problems with Membrane-Feeding Systems and Interpretation of Results

13.6 Acknowledgments

13.7 References

Chapter 14. Aphid Cell Cultures

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Establishment of Aphid Cell Cultures

14.3 Uses of Aphid Cell Cultures in Virus Research

14.4 Other Uses of Aphid Cell Cultures

14.5 Prospects and Tasks for the Future

14.6 Acknowledgment

14.7 References

Part V Epidemiology of Aphid-Borne Viruses

Chapter 15. Aphids, Viruses, and The Yellow Plague

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Yellow Plague

15.3 Beet Western Yellows Virus

15.4 Discussion

15.5 References

Chapter 16. Epidemiology of Aphid-Borne Viruses

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Biological Aspects

16.3 Physical Factors Affecting Virus Spread

16.4 Cultural Practices Influencing the Amount of Virus Spread

16.5 Concluding Remarks

16.6 References

Chapter 17. Plant Virus Epidemiology and Computer Simulation of Aphid Populations

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Approaches to an Epidemiology of Plant Virus Diseases

17.3 Computer Simulation Models of Aphid Population Dynamics

17.4 A Computer Simulation Model of Plant Virus Epidemiology

17.5 Discussion

17.6 Acknowledgments

17.7 References

Part VI Promising Frontiers in Control-Oriented Research

Chapter 18. Oils and Other Inhibitors of Nonpersistent Virus Transmission

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Mode of Action of Oils on the Transmission of Viruses by Aphids

18.3 Properties of Oils Linked to the Inhibition of Virus Transmission by Aphids

18.4 Field Experiments with Oil Sprays to Prevent the Spread of Aphid-Borne Viruses

18.5 Other Inhibitors of Transmission of Nonpersistent Viruses

18.6 Conclusions

18.7 References

Chapter 19. Inhibition of Plant Virus Infections by Antiviral Agents

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Natural Source of Antiviral Agents

19.3 Synthetic Sources

19.4 Mechanism of Virus Inhibition

19.5 Recent Advance and Practical Applications

19.6 Summary and Conclusions

19.7 References

Chapter 20. Breeding Plants for Resistance to Aphid Infestation

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Mechanisms of Plant Resistance

20.3 Obtaining Resistant Cultivars

20.4 Aphid Resistance and the Spread of Viruses

20.5 Concluding Remarks

20.6 References

Chapter 21. Resistance to the Aphid-Borne Viruses in the Potato

21.1 The Potato and Aphid-Borne Viruses

21.2 Types of Resistance

21.3 Testing for Resistance

21.4 Resistance to the Individual Viruses

21.5 The Aphid and Resistance: How Do They Relate?

21.6 What Is Resistance?

21.7 Resistance in Today's Perspective

21.8 And Tomorrow

21.9 Acknowledgments

21.10 References

Chapter 22. Aphid Pheromones

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Aggregation Pheromones

22.3 Alarm Pheromones

22.4 Aphid Sex Pheromones

22.5 Uses of Pheromones to Reduce Virus Spread by Aphids

22.6 Acknowledgments

22.7 References



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© Academic Press 1977
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Kerry F. Harris

Karl Maramorosch

Professor Karl Maramorosch works at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

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