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Antigens, Lymphoid Cells and the Immune Response - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125219501, 9781483218953

Antigens, Lymphoid Cells and the Immune Response

1st Edition

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Authors: G. J. V. Nossal G L Ada
Editors: F. J. Dixon Henry G. Kunkel
eBook ISBN: 9781483218953
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 344
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Antigens, Lymphoid Cells, and the Immune Response deals with the nature and properties of antigens and with the functional anatomy and cell physiology of the mammalian lymphoid system which responds to antigens. The book discusses the central questions in cellular immunology; the antigens and the afferent limb of the immune response; and antibodies and the afferent limb of the immune response. The text also describes the organ distribution of antigens; the functional anatomy of the lymphoid system; and the behavior patterns of lymphoid cells. The microscopic and electron microscopic distribution of antigen in lymphoid organs; the interaction of antigens with cells of the reticuloendothelial system; and the interaction of antigen with lymphoid cells are also considered. The book further tackles the role of antigen in immunological tolerance; antibody production and tolerance dissociated; and antigen and lymphoid cells.

Table of Contents





1. Introduction: Central Questions in Cellular Immunology


2. Antigens and the Afferent Limb of the Immune Response

I. Types of Immunogens

A. Artificial and Synthetic Polypeptides

B. Fibrous Proteins

C. Naturally Occurring Immunogens

D. Serum Proteins

E. Myoglobin

F. Tobacco Mosaic Virus Protein

G. Flagella Proteins of SalmoneUa Organisms

H. Hemocyanin

I. Complex Natural Antigens

II. Choice of Immunogen

A. Detection of Immunogen by Direct Visualization

B. Detection due to Innate Properties

C. Detection due to Added Markers

D. Detection of Antibody to the Injected Immunogen

E. A Perfect Immunogen?

III. Summary

3. Antibodies and the Afferent Limb of the Immune Response

I. The Structure of Immunoglobulins

II. Some Biological Properties of Antibodies

A. Cytophilic Properties

B. Opsonization

C. Follicular Localization of Antigen

D. Lymphocyte-Associated Antibodies

III. The Influence of Antibodies on the Immune Response

IV. Summary

4. Organ Distribution of Antigens

I. Reliability of Radioactive Iodide as a Marker for Proteins

II. Routes for the Carriage of Substances throughout the Body

III. Distribution of Injected Substances throughout the Body

A. In Unprimed Animals

IV. Influence of Natural Antibody on Antigen Distribution

V. Influence of Specific Antibody on Antigen Distribution

VI. Influence of Adjuvants on Antigen Distribution

VII. Antigen Distribution in Tolerant Animals

VIII. Antigen Distribution in Fetal and Young Animals

IX. Antigens and the Thymus

X. The Distribution of Enantiomorphic Polymers

XI. Metabolism of Synthetic Polymers in Responder and Nonresponder Hosts

XII. Discussion and Summary

5. The Functional Anatomy of the Lymphoid System

I. The Genesis of Lymphocytes

A. Fetal Origin

B. Bone Marrow as Chief Source of Lymphoid Stem Cells in Adult Life

II. Primary Lymphoid Organs

A. General Features and Functions

B. The Thymus

C. The Avian Bursa of Fabricius and Possible Mammalian Analogs

III. Peripheral Lymphoid Organs

A. General Features and Functions

B. Lymph Nodes

C. The Spleen

D. Peyer's Patches 8

E. Omental "Milky Spots" or Nodes of Ranvier

IV. Summary

6. Behavior Patterns of Lymphoid Cells

I. Migration Patterns of Lymphoid Cells

A. Fate of Marked Lymphocytes

B. Thymus-Dependent Lymphocytes

C. Thymus-independent Lymphocytes

II. Functional Categories of Lymphoid Cells

A. Antibody-Forming Cells

B. Antigen-Reactive Cells (ARC)

C. Other Categories of Function of Lymphocyte

III. Heterogeneity among Antibody-Forming and Antigen-Reactive Cells

A. Heterogeneity among Antibody-Forming Cells

B. Heterogeneity among Antigen-Reactive Cells

IV. Summary

7. Microscopic and Electron Microscopic Distribution of Antigen in Lymphoid Organs

I. Background Information

II. Chief Features of Antigen Capture in the Mammalian Lymphoid System

III. Design of Experiments to Study Antigen Action in Vivo

IV. Antigen Capture in the Lymph Node Medulla

A. Medullary Macrophages

B. Anatomical Relationships between Macrophage and Lymphoid Cells

C. Antibody-Forming Cells

V. Antigen Capture by the Lymph Node Follicle

A. General Considerations

B. The Antigen-Retaining Dendritic Cells

C. Differences between Primary and Secondary Follicles

D. Comparison of Different Antigens

VI. Special Features of Antigen Capture in the Spleen

VII. Antigen Distribution in the Thymus

VIII. Effects of Adjuvants on Antigen Localization

IX. Ontogeny of Antigen-Capturing Structures

X. Phylogeny of Antigen-Capturing Structures

XI. Summary

8. Interaction of Antigens with Cells of the Reticuloendothelial System

I. Antigens and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

II. Antigens and Macrophages

A. Biochemical Studies on Isolated Phagocytic Cells

B. The Fate of Antigen in Macrophages

C. The Mechanism of Antigen Localization on Dendritic Cells in Lymphoid Follicles

III. Antigen-Macrophage Interaction and the Immune Response

A. Inhibition of the Antibody Response

B. Stimulation of the Antibody Response

IV. Immunogenicity of Isolated Constituents from Antigen-Fed Macrophages

A. Cell Fractions

B. RNA-Rich Fractions

V. The Carriage of Antigen by Macrophages

VI. Nonspecific Enhancement of the Antibody Response by Macrophages

VII. Summary

9. The Interaction of Antigen with Lymphoid Cells

I. Antibody-Forming Cells from Immunized Animals

A. Presence of Antibody on Cell Surface

B. Presence of the Injected Antigen

II. Lymphocytes from Unimmunized Animals

A. Presence of Globulins on Cell Surface

Β. Reaction of Isotopically Labeled Antigens with Lymphocytes

C. Removal of Specific Cells by Immunoabsorbants

D. Hapten Inhibition Studies

E. Specific Inhibition of Antibody Response by Affinity Labeling of Lymphocyte Surface Receptors

III. Summary

10. The Rale of Antigen in Immunological Tolerance

I. General Features of Immunological Tolerance

A. Background

B. Some Key Results Summarized

II. Antigen Dose and Tolerance Induction

A. High and Low Zone Tolerance

B. The Influence of the Mode of Presentation of Antigen at Various Dosage Levels

III. Antigen Distribution and Tolerance Induction

A. The Fate of Tolerogenic Antigen

B. The Localization of Labeled Antigen in Already Tolerant Animals

C. Is There Antigen in "Tolerant Cells?"

IV. Antigen and the Specificity of Tolerance

V. Summary

11. Antibody Production and Tolerance in Dissociated Cell Systems

I. Systems for Studying the Immune Response in Cultures of Dissociated Cells

II. Important Features and Limitations of Dissociated Cell Systems

A. Assay for Antibody and Antibody-Secreting Cells

B. Rapidity of the Antibody Response

C. Nature of the Antigen

III. Major Findings Using Dissociated Cell Systems

A. Antigen Concentration

B. Properties of the Antigen

IV. Cellular Reactions

A. Types of Cells Present and Their Ability to React with Antigen

B. Cell-Cell Interaction in Dissociated Cell Systems

C. Inhibition of the Immune Response by Antibody to the Antigen

V. Work with Peritoneal Cells

VI. Summary

12. Antigen and Lymphoid Cells—A Synthesis and Prospects

I. Antigen Pumps and Cell Responses—Chief Requisites of Systems Design

A. Physiological Requirements

B. Activation and Inactivation

C. Amplification

D. Damping

II. The Reaction of Antigen with Cells

A. The Macrophage—The Immunologist's Dilemma

B. The Dendritic, Follicular Cell—The Immunologists's Cinderella

C. The Lymphocyte—The Immunologist's Hope

III. Lymphocyte Heterogeneity—The Clonal Selection Question Rephrased

A. Cross-Reactivity among Lymphocyte Receptors

B. Phylogeny of Cell Diversity

C. Ontogeny of Cell Diversity

D. Heterogeneity among Thymus-Independent Cells

E. The Importance of Memory Cells

IV. A Plan for Progress

A. Tissue Culture Systems

B. The in Vivo Approach

C. Clinical Implications—Immunoregulation

Appendix 1. Preparation of Flagellar Proteins from Salmonella Organisms

I. Bacterial Culture

II. Harvesting of Bacteria and Isolation of Flagella

III. Preparation of Polymerized Flagellin and Flagellin

IV. Preparation of Fragment A from Polymerized Flagellin

Appendix 2. The Technique of Electron Microscopic Radioautography

I. Preparation of Glass Slides

II. Collodion Coating

III. Mounting of Sections

IV. Carbon Coating

V. Emulsion Coating

VI. Development

VII. Mounting for Viewing

VIII. Preparation of the Emulsion

IX. Modifications of the Method to Allow Study of Cells Previously Held in Cell Suspensions

Appendix 3. Some Properties of Radioisotopes Used Commonly for Radioautography, with Special Reference to Tritium and 125-Iodine



Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1971
1st January 1971
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

G. J. V. Nossal

G L Ada

About the Editors

F. J. Dixon

Henry G. Kunkel

Affiliations and Expertise

The Rockefeller University New York, New York

Ratings and Reviews