Anthropometry, Apparel Sizing and Design - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857096814, 9780857096890

Anthropometry, Apparel Sizing and Design

1st Edition

Editors: Deepti Gupta Norsaadah Zakaria
eBook ISBN: 9780857096890
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857096814
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 20th January 2014
Page Count: 368
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles


Part I: Anthropometric methods

1. Apparel sizing: existing sizing systems and the development of new sizing systems


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Existing sizing systems: strengths and weaknesses

1.3 Sizing system development: Stage 1 – Anthropometric analysis

1.4 Sizing system development: Stage 2 – Sizing analysis

1.5 Sizing system development: Stage 3 – Developing and validating a sizing system

1.6 Future trends

1.7 Sources of further information and advice

1.8 References

2. Anthropometry and the design and production of apparel: an overview


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Ergonomics and design of clothing

2.3 Anthropometry

2.4 Selection of anthropometric data for clothing design

2.5 Errors and variability in anthropometric data

2.6 Selection of anthropometric design approach

2.7 Anthropometry and clothing production

2.8 Testing the fit of clothing

2.9 Conclusions

2.10 Future trends

2.11 Sources of further information and advice

2.12 References

3. Anthropometric methods for apparel design: body measurement devices and techniques


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Traditional anthropometric methods

3.3 Three-dimensional anthropometry

3.4 International standards related to anthropometric methods

3.5 Landmarking

3.6 Future trends

3.7 Sources of further information and advice

3.8 References

4. Body shape analysis and identification of key dimensions for apparel sizing systems


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Key dimensions and control dimensions

4.3 Sizing systems and identification of key dimensions

4.4 Body dimensions profile

4.5 Correlation coefficient

4.6 Multivariate data examination

4.7 Future trends

4.8 Sources of further information and advice

4.9 References

Part II: Analysing anthropometric data to develop sizing systems

5. Segmentation and classification of anthropometric data for the apparel industry


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Description and classification of human body shapes using extrinsic approaches

5.3 Description and classification of human body shapes using intrinsic approaches

5.4 Body spaces, multidimensional scaling, dimensionality reduction and segmentation

5.5 Conclusions

5.6 References

6. National size and shape surveys for apparel design


6.1 Introduction

6.2 A global context

6.3 Importance and significance of national size and shape surveys

6.4 Planning a national anthropometric survey of clothing

6.5 Reflection

6.6 Future trends

6.7 Sources of further information and advice

6.8 Acknowledgements

6.9 References

7. The development of apparel sizing systems from anthropometric data


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Importance of anthropometric data for the development of a sizing system

7.3 Statistics used in sizing system development

7.4 Key or control measurements

7.5 Establishment of a sizing system

7.6 Standard size system of body measurements

7.7 Development of a size roll/system for selected clothing

7.8 Fit testing and sizing evaluation

7.9 Conclusion

7.10 References

8. Developing apparel sizing systems for particular groups


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Sizing systems for Korean military uniforms

8.3 Analysis of body proportions of Korean women

8.4 Human-centered product design for elderly women

8.5 Korean Standard (KS) sizing systems for women’s garments

8.6 Compatibility of sizing systems

8.7 Conclusions

8.8 Future trends

8.9 References

9. Apparel size designation and labelling


9.1 Introduction

9.2 The importance of size designations

9.3 The key elements for an international size designation

9.4 Designing international size designations and methods of implementation

9.5 References

10. International apparel sizing systems and standardization of apparel sizes


10.1 Introduction: the role of international sizing systems

10.2 Body types in global garment sizing systems

10.3 Key dimensions and classification of garment types

10.4 Range of body measurements

10.5 Garment sizing systems for children

10.6 Future trends

10.7 Sources of further information and advice

10.8 References

11. Computer design and digital fit of clothing


11.1 Introduction: the role of computer technology in clothing design

11.2 Using sizing systems in clothing design simulation

11.3 Analysis of apparel fit preferences using 3D body scan data

11.4 Ensuring good fit in the design of new clothing

11.5 Application of virtual simulation in product design

11.6 Future trends

11.7 Sources of further information and advice

11.8 References

12. Wearing comfort using body motion analysis


12.1 Introduction

12.6 References



One of the greatest challenges for the apparel industry is to produce garments that fit customers properly. Anthropometry, Apparel Sizing and Design addresses the need for improved characterization of our populations in order to tailor garments according to size, weight, and shape of consumers. This book reviews techniques in anthropometry, sizing system developments, and their applications to clothing design.

Part one considers a range of anthropometric methods. The text discusses the range of sizing systems, including data mining techniques, useful for bridging the gap between ergonomists and designers. Chapters examine three-dimensional anthropometric methods and multivariate and bivariate analysis for identifying key body dimensions. Part two then explains how to analyze anthropometric data to develop appropriate sizing systems. Here, the book discusses classification and clustering of human body shapes, the importance of national surveys, and using the data obtained to ensure inclusive design strategies. The book covers sizing systems developed for particular groups, apparel size designation, and the potential for international standardization. It considers the advantages of 3D body scanning and computer-aided design, and the use of body motion analysis to address ease allowance requirements of apparel.

With its distinguished editors and international contributors, this work is an essential reference, particularly due to the specific combination of aspects of anthropometry and the sizing of clothing, for researchers, garment designers, students, and manufacturers in the clothing and fashion industry.

Key Features

  • Reviews techniques in anthropometry, sizing system developments, and their applications to clothing design
  • Examines 3D anthropometric methods and multivariate and bivariate analysis for identifying key body dimensions
  • Covers sizing systems developed for particular groups, apparel size designation, and the potential for international standardization


Researchers, designers, students, and manufacturers in the clothing and fashion industry


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2014
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:


"...a state-of-the-art treatise on the subject of anthropometry and its applications to the design and sizing of clothing for the designers and manufacturers of clothing and related products."--Asian Textile Journal, January 2015

About the Editors

Deepti Gupta Editor

Dr. Deepti Gupta is Professor in the Department of Textile Technology at IIT Delhi, India. She completed her PhD from the same department in 1995 and joined as a faculty member in 1997. She has 18 years of teaching and research experience and has published more than 40 papers in national and international journals of repute. She has guided two PhD and several M.Tech projects at IIT. Dr. Gupta has conducted research on the problem of body size chart development for the Indian ready-made garment industry for the last 6 years. She has published several papers in international journals and spoken at national and international conferences on the subject. Her team has generated a huge database of accurate anthropometric data of various segments of the Indian population. This has been analysed extensively to propose a unique, computer aided solution to the extremely complex problem of garment sizing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Indian Institute of Technology, India

Norsaadah Zakaria Editor

Dr. Norsaadah Zakaria is currently the Head of Clothing Technology and Fashion at the Institute of Business Excellence, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. She has organized training and offered professional APD clothing and design technology programmes in collaboration with the Telestia-AB Fashion Centre, Greece. Dr. Zakaria completed her research in body size and shape of 2500 children aged 7-17 years old in Malaysia. She was previously on the main research committee for the organization of national research on Saudi Size in 2015, and managed to secure the national grant to develop the first anthropometric data for Saudi Arabia. Her main research interests include traditional and 3D body scanning anthropometric survey, modelling and data for clothing sizes, shape analysis based on anthropometric data, and sizing system optimization and validation using data mining. She is now pursuing research on adult anthropometric data for women, using Telestia-AB technology to develop pattern making for improving clothing fit and sizing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Malaysia