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Anthocyanins as Food Colors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124725508, 9780323157902

Anthocyanins as Food Colors

1st Edition

Editor: Pericles Markakis
eBook ISBN: 9780323157902
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1982
Page Count: 280
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Anthocyanins as Food Colors aims to assemble scattered information on anthocyanins pertinent to food coloration. Both basic and applied aspects of these pigments are discussed. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with a discussion of the chemical structure of anthocyanins, followed by its copigmentation and biosynthesis. It then discusses the distribution of anthocyanin in food plants, as well as the compounds' stability in food. This work also looks into the analysis of anthocyanins and their presence in grapes and wine. Utilization of anthocyanins as food additives is addressed in the last chapter. This book will provide additional information in order to maximize the visual appeal of these pigments both in products in which they are naturally present and in products to which they may be added as colorants.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1 Chemical Structure of Anthocyanins

I. Introduction

II. Principal Hydroxylation, Methoxylation, Glycosylation, and Acylation Patterns of Natural Anthocyanins

III. Structural Transformations in Water

IV. Color Stabilization Effects


Chapter 2 Copigmentation of Anthocyanins

I. Introduction

II. Anthocyanin Coloration of Flowers

III. Copigmentation in Some Detail

IV. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 3 Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins in the General Context of Flavonoid Biosynthesis

III. General Phenylpropanoid Metabolism

IV. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins

V. Summary and Outlook


Chapter 4 Proanthocyanidins

I. Introduction

II. The Natural Leucoanthocyanidins

III. The Naturally Occurring Proanthocyanidinocatechins

IV. Prospects


Chapter 5 Distribution of Anthocyanins in Food Plants

I. Introduction

II. Anthocyanins of the Dicotyledons: Archichlamydeae

III. Anthocyanins of the Dicotyledons: Sympetalae

IV. Anthocyanins of the Monocotyledons

V. Conclusions


Chapter 6 Stability of Anthocyanins in Foods

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Structure

III. Enzymes

IV. Temperature

V. Light

VI. pH

VII. Oxygen

VIII. Ascorbic Acid

IX. Sugars and Their Degradation Products

X. Metals

XI. Condensation

XII. Sulfur Dioxide


Chapter 7 Analysis of Anthocyanins

I. Qualitative Analysis

II. Quantitative Analysis

III. Differentiation between Groups of Compounds


Chapter 8 The Anthocyanins of Grapes and Wines

I. Introduction

II. Identification Methods for the Anthocyanins of Grapes

III. Distribution of Anthocyanins in the Different Species of Vitis

IV. Differentiation of Red Wines According to Their Anthocyanin Content

V. Changes in Anthocyanin Content during Grape Ripening

VI. Determination of Anthocyanin Content and Color in Red Wines

VII. Anthocyanin Extraction from Grapes during Vinification

VIII. Transformation of Anthocyanins during Wine Storage and Aging

IX. Conclusions


Chapter 9 Anthocyanins as Food Additives

I. Introduction

II. Sources of Anthocyanins

III. Processing of the Raw Material

IV. Anthocyanin Colorants

V. Synthetic Flavylia


Subject Index

Genus and Species Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1982
28th April 1982
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Pericles Markakis

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