Anthocyanins as Food Colors

Anthocyanins as Food Colors

1st Edition - April 28, 1982

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  • Editor: Pericles Markakis
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157902

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Anthocyanins as Food Colors aims to assemble scattered information on anthocyanins pertinent to food coloration. Both basic and applied aspects of these pigments are discussed. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with a discussion of the chemical structure of anthocyanins, followed by its copigmentation and biosynthesis. It then discusses the distribution of anthocyanin in food plants, as well as the compounds' stability in food. This work also looks into the analysis of anthocyanins and their presence in grapes and wine. Utilization of anthocyanins as food additives is addressed in the last chapter. This book will provide additional information in order to maximize the visual appeal of these pigments both in products in which they are naturally present and in products to which they may be added as colorants.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Chapter 1 Chemical Structure of Anthocyanins

    I. Introduction

    II. Principal Hydroxylation, Methoxylation, Glycosylation, and Acylation Patterns of Natural Anthocyanins

    III. Structural Transformations in Water

    IV. Color Stabilization Effects


    Chapter 2 Copigmentation of Anthocyanins

    I. Introduction

    II. Anthocyanin Coloration of Flowers

    III. Copigmentation in Some Detail

    IV. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 3 Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins

    I. Introduction

    II. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins in the General Context of Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    III. General Phenylpropanoid Metabolism

    IV. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins

    V. Summary and Outlook


    Chapter 4 Proanthocyanidins

    I. Introduction

    II. The Natural Leucoanthocyanidins

    III. The Naturally Occurring Proanthocyanidinocatechins

    IV. Prospects


    Chapter 5 Distribution of Anthocyanins in Food Plants

    I. Introduction

    II. Anthocyanins of the Dicotyledons: Archichlamydeae

    III. Anthocyanins of the Dicotyledons: Sympetalae

    IV. Anthocyanins of the Monocotyledons

    V. Conclusions


    Chapter 6 Stability of Anthocyanins in Foods

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemical Structure

    III. Enzymes

    IV. Temperature

    V. Light

    VI. pH

    VII. Oxygen

    VIII. Ascorbic Acid

    IX. Sugars and Their Degradation Products

    X. Metals

    XI. Condensation

    XII. Sulfur Dioxide


    Chapter 7 Analysis of Anthocyanins

    I. Qualitative Analysis

    II. Quantitative Analysis

    III. Differentiation between Groups of Compounds


    Chapter 8 The Anthocyanins of Grapes and Wines

    I. Introduction

    II. Identification Methods for the Anthocyanins of Grapes

    III. Distribution of Anthocyanins in the Different Species of Vitis

    IV. Differentiation of Red Wines According to Their Anthocyanin Content

    V. Changes in Anthocyanin Content during Grape Ripening

    VI. Determination of Anthocyanin Content and Color in Red Wines

    VII. Anthocyanin Extraction from Grapes during Vinification

    VIII. Transformation of Anthocyanins during Wine Storage and Aging

    IX. Conclusions


    Chapter 9 Anthocyanins as Food Additives

    I. Introduction

    II. Sources of Anthocyanins

    III. Processing of the Raw Material

    IV. Anthocyanin Colorants

    V. Synthetic Flavylia


    Subject Index

    Genus and Species Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 280
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: April 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157902

About the Editor

Pericles Markakis

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