Animal Products in Human Nutrition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120863808, 9780323145923

Animal Products in Human Nutrition

1st Edition

Editors: Donald Beitz
eBook ISBN: 9780323145923
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1982
Page Count: 564
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Animal Products in Human Nutrition evaluates the contributions of food derived from animals to a balanced diet. The individual chapters in this book are organized into two major sections. The first section begins with a history of the use of animal-derived foods from the early ages of mankind, followed by a treatise of economic and resource costs of animal foods, including use of industrial and agricultural by-products and fish. Trends in the changes in the composition of American diets and the metabolism and disposition of common environmental toxins within animal tissues are also included in this section. The second section details the essential nutrients provided by animal products, as well as the possible effects of consumption of animal products on the development of hypertension, milk intolerance, infections from food-borne bacteria, cancer, and atherosclerosis. This book will be useful to agricultural scientists, journalists, professionals that deal with human nutrition, and human nutritionists and dietitians.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Section I Production, Consumption, and Characteristics of Foods Derived from Animals

1 Historic Development of the Use of Animal Products in Human Nutrition

I. Introduction

II. Chronology

III. Summary


2 Problems in the Use of Animal Products as Human Food: Some Ethnographical and

Historical Problems

I. Introduction

II. Vegetarianism as a General Rejection of Flesh Food

III. Selectivity as to Animal Products Available: A Universal Culture Trait

IV. Strength of Human Feelings against Rejected Animal Products

V. Flesh Avoidances in Human Ecology: The Case of Beef in India; Notes on Other Animal Products

VI. Genetic Change in Human Populations Induced by Consumption of Animal Products: The Case of Dairying, Milk Use, and Primary Adult Lactose Malabsorption

VII. Some Promising Research Directions


3 Economic and Resource Cost of Production of Foods by Ruminants

I. Introduction

II. Ruminant Product Costs and Returns

III. Energy Requirements for Ruminant Products

IV. Impact of Increased Costs

V. Production Options under Energy Constraints

VI. Research Needs

VII. Summary


4 The Worldwide Importance of Nonruminants as a Source of Food


5 Current and Potential Use of Plant and Animal By-Products as Livestock Feeds

I. Introduction

II. Ruminants: Their Peculiar Nature to Eat By-Products

III. Forest, Wildlife, and Desert Range: Grazing Situations Now and in the Future

IV. Use of Different By-Products as Feeds for Ruminants

V. Research Needs


6 Practice and Prospects of Fish Farming for Food Production

I. Introduction

II. The Role of Aquaculture

III. Status of World Aquaculture

IV. Status of United States Aquaculture

V. Constraints and Promise


7 Current Food Consumption Practices and Nutrient Sources in the American Diet

I. Introduction

II. Quantities of Food Used by Food Groups

III. Overview of Individual Diets

IV. Nutrients Contributed by Food Groups

V. Conclusion


8 Food Habits, Food Pricing, and Supply of Animal Products

I. Changing Food Habits of Americans

II. Illustration of Changing Attitudes toward Diet Composition

III. Consumption of Foods of Animal Origin and Human Health

IV. Role of Animals as Food Producers in American Agricultural Economy

V. Trends in Consumption of Animal Products

VI. Consumer Interest in Nutrition and Health


9 Constituents of Animal Products That Are Affected by Cooking and Processing

I. Introduction

II. Changes in Protein Quality

III. Retention of Vitamins and Minerals

IV. Changes in Lipid Composition

V. Research Needs


10 Compositional Characteristics and the Potential for Change in Foods of Animal Origin

I. Introduction

II. Nutrients Provided by Animal Products

III. Potential Compositional Changes

IV. Research Needs


11 Biodisposition of Environmental Chemicals by Animals

I. Introduction

II. Sources of Exposure of Food-Producing Animals to Xenobiotics

III. Consequences of Xenobiotic Exposure

IV. Xenobiotic Transformation as Detoxification

V. Xenobiotic Biotransformation as Activation

VI. Xenobiotic Residues in Animal Products

VII. Biotransformation of Aflatoxin B1



Section II Nutritive Value and Metabolic Effects of Foods Derived from Animals

12 Importance of Animal Protein in Human Nutrition

I. Introduction

II. Diets That Meet but Do Not Exceed the RDAs for Protein and Energy

III. Protein Available for Consumption in the United States

IV. Protein Intake of Diets Consumed in the United States and Energy-Protein Relationships

V. Contribution of Animal Products to the Essential Amino Acid Supply of the United States

VI. Food Supplies in Countries Other Than the United States

VII. Contribution of Animal Products to the United States Nutrient Supply

VIII. Animal Products Enhance the Flavor and Texture of Vegetables

IX. Future Research


13 Dietary Calcium: Sources, Interaction with Other Nutrients, and Relationship to Dental, Bone, and Kidney Diseases

I. Distribution of Body Calcium

II. Factors Influencing Absorption of Dietary Calcium

III. Calcium Homeostasis

IV. Relationship of Dietary Calcium to Human Diseases


14 Role of Animal Products in Trace Element Nutriture

I. Introduction

II. Review and Discussion

III. Research Needs


15 Animal Products and Hypertension

I. Introduction

II. Obesity and Hypertension

III. Salt and Hypertension

IV. Potassium and Hypertension


16 The Importance of Animal Products in Human Iron Nutrition

I. Introduction

II. Measurements of Iron Absorption in Man

III. Bioavailability of Iron in Animal Foods

IV. Effects of Animal Protein on Food Iron Absorption

V. Effect of Intake of Animal Foods on Iron Status

VI. Importance of Animal Foods in Iron Fortification

VII. Summary


17 Animal Products as a Source of Vitamins

I. Introduction

II. Contributions of Animal Products to the National Food Supply of Vitamins

III. Contributions of Major Food Groups to the Vitamin Supplies of the United States Diet

IV. Contributions of Animal Products to Vitamin Intakes of Various Age and Ethnic Groups

V. Contributions of Animal Products to Nutrient Intakes of Military Personnel

VI. United States School Lunch Program

VII. Nutrient Density

VIII. Summary


18 Lactose Digestion and Milk Intolerance in Human Populations

I. Introduction

II. Variations in Lactase Activity

III. Lactose Digestion

IV. Lactose-Hydrolyzed Milk

V. Additional Population Studies

VI. Milk Drinking Patterns and Practices

VII. Nutritional Implications

VIII. Conclusions


19 Controlling Microbial Contamination of Animal Products

I. Introduction

II. Transmission of Disease by Food

III. Microbiology of Animal Products

IV. Control of Microorganisms by Hygiene and Processing

V. Research Needed to Control Microbial Contamination of Animal Foods


20 Nitrate, Nitrite, and Nitrosamines in Animal Products

I. Introduction

II. Chemistry of Nitrosamine Formation

III. Precursors of Nitrosamines in Animal Products

IV. Occurrence of Nitrosamines in Animal Products

V. Nitrosamine Formation in the Body

VI. Conclusions


21 Influence of Dietary Fat, Protein, and Fiber on Colon Cancer Development

I. Introduction

II. Epidemiology

III. Etiology

IV. Experimental Studies

V. Conclusion

VI. Future Research


22 Cholesterol and Carcinogenic Fecal Steroids

I. Introduction

II. Critical Review and Discussion

III. Research Needs


23 The Role of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Prostaglandins in Reducing Blood Pressure and Improving Thrombogenic Indices

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Procedures and Results

III. Discussion


24 Diet, Serum Lipids, and Atherosclerosis

I. Lipids and Atherosclerosis

II. Dietary Fat Saturation

III. Dietary Cholesterol

IV. Dietary Carbohydrate

V. Ethanol

VI. Research Needs




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© Academic Press 1982
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Donald Beitz

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