Animal Biotechnology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124160026, 9780123914347

Animal Biotechnology

1st Edition

Models in Discovery and Translation

Editors: Ashish Verma Anchal Singh
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124160026
eBook ISBN: 9780123914347
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th December 2013
Page Count: 668
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Description

Animal Biotechnology introduces applications of animal biotechnology and implications for human health and welfare. It begins with an introduction to animal cell cultures and genome sequencing analysis and provides readers with a review of available cell and molecular tools. Topics here include the use of transgenic animal models, tissue engineering, nanobiotechnology, and proteomics. The book then delivers in-depth examples of applications in human health and prospects for the future, including cytogenetics and molecular genetics, xenografts, and treatment of HIV and cancers. All this is complemented by a discussion of the ethical and safety considerations in the field.

Animal biotechnology is a broad field encompassing the polarities of fundamental and applied research, including molecular modeling, gene manipulation, development of diagnostics and vaccines, and manipulation of tissue. Given the tools that are currently available and the translational potential for these studies, animal biotechnology has become one of the most essential subjects for those studying life sciences.

Key Features

  • Highlights the latest biomedical applications of genetically modified and cloned animals with a focus on cancer and infectious diseases
  • Provides firsthand accounts of the use of biotechnology tools, including molecular markers, stem cells, and tissue engineering

Readership

students of biotechnology, biochemistry, molecular medicine, genetics, genomics and other life science courses; researchers in these areas

Table of Contents

Dedication

Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Section I: Human Diseases: In Vivo and In Vitro Models

Chapter 1. Drosophila: A Model for Biotechnologists

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

History

Principle

Methodology

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

Drosophila Models of Human Disease

Drosophila-Based Therapeutic Peptide Production

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 2. Animal Models of Tuberculosis

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Comparative Pathology of TB in Humans and Animals

Pathogen Diversity: Crossing Species Barriers

Host Diversity: Fundamental Processes and Fine Tuning

Animal Models of TB: Limits and Lessons

Various Animal Models

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

Protocols

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 3. Animal Models for Neurodegenerative Disorders

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Principles

Methodology

Examples and Their Applications

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 4. Epigenetics and Animal Models: Applications in Cancer Control and Treatment

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

History: Landscape of Epigenetics

Principle

Methodology

Protocols

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 5. Development of Mouse Models for Cancer Research

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

History

Principle

Methodology

Examples with Applications

Checklist for a Successful in vivo Experiment

Protocols

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questons

Chapter 6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Diagnosis and Treatment

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Classification of Cancer

Cancer-Causing Agents

Cervical Cancer

Prevalence and Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer

Ethical Issues

Public Health Concerns About Vaccine Implementation

Treatment

Translational Significance

Therapeutic HPV Vaccines

Genetic-Based DNA Vaccines

Issues/Unanswered Questions Associated with HPV Vaccines

Future Prospects of HPV with Respect to Biotechnology

Conclusion

Key Points

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 7. Human DNA Tumor Viruses and Oncogenesis

Abstract

Summary

What You CAN Expect To Know

History and Methods

Transformation and Oncogenesis

History of Human DNA Tumor Viruses and Cancer

Current Research Perspectives

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers To Short Answer Questions

Chapter 8. Animal Models for Human Disease

Abstract

Summary

What you CAN Expect to Know

History and Methods

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Multiple Sclerosis

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 9. HIV and Antiretroviral Drugs

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Discovery and Origin of HIV

History of HIV and AIDS

Global Disease Burden

Clinical Stages of HIV

Molecular Biology of HIV

Replication: Steps and Drug Targets

Antiretroviral Drugs

HIV Resistance and Antiretroviral Treatment

New Types of Antiretrovirals

Methodology and Principles

NeuroAIDS: An Emerging Health Concern

Bone Marrow Transplantation: A Probable Cure for HIV

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 10. Animal Biotechnology as a Tool to Understand and Fight Aging

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Principle

Methodology: Measurement of Free Radicals and Methods to Monitor Aging

Common Laboratory Animal Experimental Models for Aging Research

Polyphenols as an Agent to Fight Aging

Animal Biotechnology as a Tool to Understand and Fight Aging

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Section II: Animal Biotechnology: Tools and Techniques

Chapter 11. Multicellular Spheroid: 3-D Tissue Culture Model for Cancer Research

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

MULTICELLULAR Tumor Spheroids

Historical Facts Towards the Development of Tissue Culture Technology from 2-D and 3-D Cultures

Techniques for the Generation of Spheroids

Protocol for Tumor SPHEROID Generation

Drug Treatment Protocol

Parameters to Monitor Drug Efficacy in 3-D Cultures

Radiation Response of Tumor Cells and its Modifications

Response to Anticancer Drugs

Response to Photodynamic Therapy

Response to Anti-Angiogenesis Therapeutics

Evaluation of Response to Immunotherapy

Application of 3-D Cultures in Other Diseases

Conclusions

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 12. Animal Tissue Culture: Principles and Applications

Abstract

Summary

What You can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Development of Animal Cell Culture

Basic Concept of Cell Culture

Types of Cell Culture

Cell Line

Growth Cycle

Monitoring Cell Growth

Cell Viability

Culture Media

Characterization of Cell Lines

Advantages of Animal Cell Culture

Disadvantages of Animal Cell Culture

Ethical Issues

Use of Fetal Bovine Serum in Animal Culture of Media

Translational Significance

Anti-Viral Vaccines

Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins

Gene Therapy

Biopesticides

Monoclonal Antibodies

Stem Cells

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 13. Concepts of Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Summary

What you can Expect to Know

History and Methods

History

Basic Approach to Tissue Engineering: Principles and Methodology

Scaffold Design

Materials for Scaffolds

Scaffold Fabrication Methods

Examples of Tissue-Engineered Organs

Tissue Engineering Using Stem Cells

Issues and Challenges

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 14. Nanotechnology and Its Applications to Animal Biotechnology

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Summary

What You can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Methodologies

Examples of Nanotechnology Applications To Animal Biotechnology

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 15. Antibodies: Monoclonal and Polyclonal

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Summary

What You can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Tiselius and Kabat’s Experiment

History

Elucidation of Immunoglobulin Structure

Immunoglobulin G: A Prototype for Immunoglobulin

Polyclonal Antibody versus Monoclonal Antibody

Naming Monoclonal Antibodies

Antibodies as Therapeutics: Adverse Effects

Applications of Antibodies

Methodology, Principles, and Protocols

Biochemical Pathway: Hybridoma Selection

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 16. Molecular Markers: Tool for Genetic Analysis

Abstract

Summary

What you can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Methodology

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 17. Gene Expression: Analysis and Quantitation

Abstract

Summary

What you can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Principles

Methodology

Protocols

Examples

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 18. Ribotyping: A Tool for Molecular Taxonomy

Abstract

Summary

What you CAN Expect to Know

History and Methods

Historical Developments in Bacterial Taxonomy

Typing Methods Used for Bacterial Systematics

Basis of Using rRNA and rRNA Genes as Taxonomic Tools

Different Techniques of Ribotyping

Limitations of Ribotyping

Future Perspectives

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 19. Next Generation Sequencing and Its Applications

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

History of DNA Sequencing

Generation of Sequencing Technologies

Principle of Sanger Sequencing vs. Next Generation Sequencing

Next Generation/Second Generation Technologies

Third Generation Sequencing Technologies

Other/4th Generation Sequencing Technologies

Downstream Bioinformatics

General Principles of NGS Methods in Various Applications

Animal Biotechnology and the Cattle Genome

Applications of NGS in Animal Biotechnology

Applications of NGS in Human Health

Future Perspectives

Challenges

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 20. Biomolecular Display Technology: A New Tool for Drug Discovery

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Principle

Necessity: Small Molecule vs. Biomolecular (Biologics) Drugs

Methodology: Biomolecular Display Technologies

Conclusion and Future Perspectives

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Anwers Questions

Answers to Short Answers Questions

Chapter 21. In Silico Models: From Simple Networks to Complex Diseases

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Bioinformatics and Systems Biology

Common Computational Methods in Systems Biology

Experimental Methods in Systems Biology

Protein–Protein Interactions (PPIs)

Transcriptional Control Networks

Signal Transduction Networks

Mathematical Modeling Techniques

The Concept of Modeling

In Silico Models of Cells

Applications of In Silico Disease Modeling in Practice

Conclusion

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Section III: Animal Biotechnology: Applications and Concerns

Chapter 22. Transgenic Animals and their Applications

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

Introduction

Creating Transgenic Animals

Transgenic Animals as Disease Models

Transgenic Animals as Biological Models

Transgenic Animals as Xenotransplanters

Transgenic Animals as Food Sources

Transgenic Animals for Drug and Industrial Production

Transgenic Animals’ Impact on the Environment

Patenting Transgenic Animals

Ethical Issues

FDA Guidelines on Genetically Engineered Animals

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 23. Stem Cells: A Trek from Laboratory to Clinic to Industry

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

History of Stem Cell Research

What are Stem Cells and Why are They Important?

What Makes Stem Cells Special?

Differentiation Potential/Potency of Stem Cells

Are Stem Cells Immortal?

Characteristics of Stem Cells

Where to Find Stem Cells?

Where do Stem Cells Come From?

How are Stem Cells Identified, Isolated, and Characterized?

The Stem Cell Niche

Growing Stem Cells in the Laboratory

iPSCs: A Stem Cell Research Breakthrough

Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs)

Protocols for Hoechst 33342 or DCV Staining and Stem Cell Purification

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

How are Stem Cells Used In Cell-Based Regenerative Therapies?

Can Stem Cells Be Used to Find New Medicines?

Potential Uses of Stem Cells

Stem Cell Banking

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 24. Role of Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics in Human Health and Medicine

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Cytogenetics: An Overview

Chromosome Morphology and Classification

Chromosomal Disorders

Methodology: Application of Different Cytogenetic Techniques in Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders

Molecular Genetics: an Overview

Methodology: Application of Different Molecular Techniques for Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 25. Antibodies and Their Applications

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

Pros

Cons

Websites

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 26. Vaccines: Present Status and Applications

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Types of Vaccines

Molecular Farming Using Plants as Bio-Reactors

Role of Adjuvants

Immune-Stimulating Complexes (ISCOMs)

Protocol for the Development of Vaccines

Future Challenges in Vaccine Development

Ethical Issues

Mandates

Vaccine Research and Testing

Informed Consent

Access Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 27. Safety Assessment of Food Derived from Genetically Modified Crops

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Rationale for the Allergenicity Assessment of GM Foods

Mechanism of Food Protein-Induced Allergenicity

Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) Assay

Simulated Intestinal Fluid (SIF) Assay

Thermal Treatment Assay

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 28. Nanotechnology and Detection of Microbial Pathogens

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Indicators of Microbial Water Quality

Need for Detection of Water- and Food-Borne Pathogens

Conventional Methods to Detect Fecal Indicator Organisms and Other Pathogenic Bacteria

Molecular Methods Based on Genetic Signature of Target Pathogen

Nanotechnology and Its Promise

History

Detection Principle

Methodology

Examples

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

Future Approaches

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 29. Biotechnological Exploitation of Marine Animals

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Marine Bioresources and Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering and Its Application in Aquaculture

Marine Ornamental Fish Trade and Chromosomal Manipulation

Advances in Mariculture

Marine Genomics

Disease Diagnosis of Cultivable Animals

Therapeutics from Marine Animals

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

Future Directions

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 30. Herbal Medicine and Biotechnology for the Benefit of Human Health

Abstract

Summary

What you can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Methodology

Biotechnological Approaches for Herbal Drug Production

Opportunities and Challenges

Conclusions and Outlook

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 31. Perspectives on the Human Genome

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

Human Genome Sequencing Project

Principle

Methodology

Examples with Applications

Ethical Issues

Translational Significance

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Abbreviations

Glossary

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Chapter 32. Ethical Issues in Animal Biotechnology

Abstract

Summary

What You Can Expect to Know

History and Methods

A Brief Overview of Ethical Thoughts and Principles

Principles

Methodology

Application of Ethics in Animal Biotechnology

Ethical Concerns in Animal Biotechnology

Some Challenging Ethical Issues in Animal Biotechnology

Translational Significance

Conclusions

World Wide Web Resources

References

Further Reading

Glossary

Abbreviations

Long Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions

Answers to Short Answer Questions

Index

Color Plates

Details

No. of pages:
668
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123914347
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124160026

About the Editor

Ashish Verma

He has published more than thirty articles in peer reviewed journals, co-edited five books, and authored five individual book chapters. Dr. Verma serves as Associate Editor of the Journal of Agricultural and Biological Research, Research Journal of Immunology, International Journal of Virology, Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences and Advances in Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology. He also serves as Chief Editor of Biolixer and is a full member of the Indian Immunology Society, the Association of Microbiologists of India, the Society of Biological Chemists, the Society of Toxicology, the Indian Science Congress, and the Biotechnology Society of India. Dr. Ashish has been an invited guest speaker at numerous international scientific meetings, chaired ten scientific meetings in India and abroad, and received research grants and awards from the Indian Ministry of Education, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the International Union of Immunology, the Weizmann Institute of Science, and the Catholic University of Rome among other organizations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dr. Ashish S. Verma is Professor and Pro-Vice-Chancellor at Jadavpur University, Kolkatta, India and previously served as Professor at Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, India

Anchal Singh

Dr. Singh teaches biochemistry and immunology to post graduate students at Baranas Hindu University and her research interests and areas of expertise include parasite immunology, immunodiagnostics, animal cell cultures, in vitro assays, and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Her research has been funded by the Indian Department of Science and Technology and the Indian Department of Biotechnology. She has co-edited five books, authored articles for peer reviewed journals, and authored nine individual book chapters in her various research areas. Additionally, Dr. Singh is a full member of the Association of Microbiologists of India, the Society of Biological Chemists, and AIDSCON and has served as Treasurer of “National Symposium on HIV and AIDS: Biology to Bedside” held at Amity University (2012), the “International Symposium on Frontiers in Cancer Research: Prevention to Therapeutics” at Amity University (2013), and the “26th National Congress of Parasitology” held at Banaras Hindu University (2016).

Affiliations and Expertise

Dr. Anchal Singh is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India and previously served as Assistant Professor at Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, India.