Anelastic Relaxation In Crystalline Solids

Anelastic Relaxation In Crystalline Solids

1st Edition - March 28, 1972

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  • Author: A.S. Nowick
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143318

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Anelastic Relaxation in Crystalline Solids provides an overview of anelasticity in crystals. This book discusses the various physical and chemical phenomena in crystalline solids. Comprised of 20 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the formal theory of anelasticity, and then explores the anelastic behavior, which is a manifestation of internal relaxation process. This text lays the groundwork for the formal theory by introducing the postulates. Other chapters explore the different dynamical methods that are frequently used in studying anelasticity. The reader is then introduced to the physical origin of anelastic relaxation process in terms of atomic model. This text also discusses the various types of point defects in crystals, including elementary point defects, composite defects, and self-interstitial defects. The final chapter provides relevant information on the various frequency ranges used in the study. This book is intended for crystallographers, mechanical engineers, metallurgical engineers, solid-state physicists, materials scientists, and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Chapter 1 Characterization of Anelastic Behavior

    1.1 The Meaning of Anelasticity

    1.2 Quasi-Static Response Functions

    1.3 The Primary Dynamic Response Functions

    1.4 Additional Dynamic Response Functions

    1.5 Resonant Systems with Large External Inertia

    1.6 Wave Propagation Methods

    1.7 Summary of Results for Various Dynamic Experiments


    General References

    Chapter 2 Relations among the Response Functions: The Boltzmann Superposition Principle

    2.1 Statement of the Boltzmann Superposition Principle

    2.2 Relations between the Creep and Stress Relaxation Functions

    2.3 Relations between Quasi-Static and Dynamic Properties

    2.4 Interrelation of the Dynamic Properties

    2.5 Summary of Relations among Response Functions


    General References

    Chapter 3 Mechanical Models and Discrete Spectra

    3.1 Differential Stress-Strain Equations and the Construction of Models

    3.2 The Voigt and Maxwell Models

    3.3 Three Parameter Models; the Standard Anelastic Solid

    3.4 Dynamic Properties of the Standard Anelastic Solid

    3.5 Dynamic Properties of the Standard Anelastic Solid as Functions of Temperature

    3.6 Multiple Relaxations; Discrete Spectra

    3.7 Obtaining the Spectrum from a Response Function


    General References

    Chapter 4 Continuous Spectra

    4.1 Continuous Relaxation Spectra at Constant Stress and Constant Strain

    4.2 Relations between the Two Relaxation Spectra

    4.3 Direct Methods for the Calculation of Spectra

    4.4 Approximate Relations among Response Functions

    4.5 Indirect or Empirical Methods for the Determination of Spectra

    4.6 Remarks on the Use of Direct and Indirect Methods

    4.7 Restrictions on the Form of Distribution Functions for Thermally Activated Processes

    4.8 Temperature Dependence of the Gaussian Distribution Parameter

    4.9 Dynamic Properties as Functions of Temperature


    General References

    Chapter 5 Internal Variables and the Thermodynamic Basis for Relaxation Spectra

    5.1 Case of a Single Internal Variable

    5.2 Case of a Set of Coupled Internal Variables

    5.3 Thermodynamic Considerations

    5.4 Relaxation Spectra under Different Conditions


    General References

    Chapter 6 Anisotropic Elasticity and Anelasticity

    6.1 Stress, Strain, and Hooke's Law

    6.2 The Characteristic Elastic Constants

    6.3 Use of Symmetrized Stresses and Strains

    6.4 The "Practical" Moduli

    6.5 Transition from Elasticity to Anelasticity

    6.6 Thermodynamic Considerations


    General References

    Chapter 7 Point Defects and Atom Movements

    7.1 Types of Point Defects in Crystals

    7.2 Defects in Equilibrium

    7.3 Kinetics of Atom or Defect Migration

    7.4 General Remarks Applicable to Both Formation and Activation of Defects

    7.5 Diffusion

    7.6 Nonequilibrium Defects


    General References

    Chapter 8 Theory of Point-Defect Relaxations

    8.1 Crystal and Defect Symmetry

    8.2 Concept of an "Elastic Dipole"

    8.3 Thermodynamics of Relaxation of Elastic Dipoles under Uniaxial Stress

    8.4 Some Examples in Cubic Crystals

    8.5 Generalization of the Thermodynamic Theory: The Selection Rules

    8.6 Generalization of the Thermodynamic Theory: Expressions for the Relaxation Magnitudes

    8.7 Information Obtainable from Lattice Parameters

    8.8 Kinetics of Point-Defect Relaxations: An Example

    8.9 Kinetics of Point-Defect Relaxations: General Theory

    8.10 Limitations of the Simple Theory


    General References

    Chapter 9 The Snoek Relaxation

    9.1 Theory of the Snoek Relaxation

    9.2 Experimental Investigations of the Snoek Relaxation

    9.3 Applications of the Snoek Relaxation


    Chapter 10 The Zener Relaxation

    10.1 Zener's Pair Reorientation Theory

    10.2 Results for Dilute Alloys

    10.3 The Zener Relaxation in Concentrated Alloys

    10.4 Theory of the Zener Relaxation in Concentrated Alloys

    10.5 Applications of the Zener Relaxation


    Chapter 11 Other Point-Defect Relaxations

    11.1 Substitutionals and Vacancies

    11.2 Interstitials

    11.3 Defect Pairs Containing a Vacancy

    11.4 Interstitial Impurity (i-i) Pairs and Higher Clusters

    11.5 Interstitial-Substitutional (i-s) Pairs

    11.6 Defects in Various Other Crystals


    Chapter 12 Dislocations and Crystal Boundaries

    12.1 Definitions, Geometry, and Energetics of Dislocations

    12.2 Motion of Dislocations

    12.3 Interaction of Dislocations with Other Imperfections

    12.4 Grain Boundaries


    General References

    Chapter 13 Dislocation Relaxations

    13.1 Description of the Bordoni Peak in fee Metals

    13.2 Theories of the Bordoni Relaxation

    13.3 Other Low-Temperature Peaks in fee Metals

    13.4 Relaxation Peaks in bec and hep Metals

    13.5 Peaks in Ionic and Covalent Crystals

    13.6 The Snoek-Koster (Cold Work) Relaxation in bec Metals


    General References

    Chapter 14 Further Dislocation Effects

    14.1 The Vibrating-String Model and Dislocation Resonance

    14.2 Experimental Observations concerning ϕi

    14.3 Theory of the Amplitude-Dependent Damping ϕh

    14.4 Experimental Studies of Amplitude-Dependent Damping


    General References

    Chapter 15 Boundary Relaxation Processes and Internal Friction at High Temperatures

    15.1 Formal Theory of Relaxation by Grain-Boundary Sliding

    15.2 Experimental Studies of the Grain-Boundary Relaxation

    15.3 Studies of the Macroscopic Sliding of Boundaries

    15.4 Mechanism of the Grain-Boundary Relaxation

    15.5 Twin-Boundary Relaxation

    15.6 The High-Temperature Background


    General References

    Chapter 16 Relaxations Associated with Phase Transformations

    16.1 Theory of Relaxation near a Lambda Transition

    16.2 Examples of Relaxation near a Lambda Transition

    16.3 Relaxation in Two-Phase Mixtures


    General References

    Chapter 17 Thermoelastic Relaxation and the Interaction of Acoustic Waves with Lattice Vibrations

    17.1 Thermoelastic Coupling as a Source of Anelasticity

    17.2 Thermal Relaxation under Inhomogeneous Deformation

    17.3 Transverse Thermal Currents

    17.4 Longitudinal Thermal Currents

    17.5 Intercrystalline Thermal Currents

    17.6 Interaction of Ultrasonic Waves with Lattice Vibrations: Theory

    17.7 Interaction of Ultrasonic Waves with Lattice Vibrations: Experiments


    General References

    Chapter 18 Magnetoelastic Relaxations and Hysteresis Damping of Ferromagnetic Materials

    18.1 Background Review

    18.2 Macroeddy Currents

    18.3 Microeddy Currents

    18.4 Magnetomechanical Hysteresis Damping

    18.5 Magnetoelastic Relaxation and Directional Order


    General References

    Chapter 19 Electronic Relaxation and Related Phenomena

    19.1 Interaction of Ultrasonic Waves with Electrons in Metals

    19.2 Interaction of Ultrasonic Waves with Electrons in Semiconductors

    19.3 Relaxations Attributed to Bound Electrons


    General References

    Chapter 20 Experimental Methods

    20.1 Quasi-Static Methods

    20.2 Subresonance Methods

    20.3 Resonance Methods

    20.4 High-Frequency Wave Propagation Methods

    General References

    Appendix A Resonant Systems with Distributed Inertia

    Appendix B The Kronig-Kramers Relations

    Appendix C Relation between Relaxation and Resonance Behavior

    Appendix D Torsion-Flexure Coupling

    Appendix E Wave Propagation in Arbitrary Directions

    Appendix F Mechanical Vibration Formulas

    Torsional and Longitudinal Vibrations

    Flexural Vibrations

    General References

    Appendix G Computed Response Functions for the Gaussian Distribution


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 694
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1972
  • Published: March 28, 1972
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143318

About the Author

A.S. Nowick

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