Anatomy, Physiology and Health Education - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9788131231005

Anatomy, Physiology and Health Education

1st Edition

Authors: Rohini Agrawal
Paperback ISBN: 9788131231005
Imprint: Elsevier India
Published Date: 31st July 2012
Page Count: 667
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Key Features

Salient Features

  • Simple narrative text that will help the students quickly understand important concepts
  • Study objectives at beginning of each chapter
  • Summary or overview flow charts of each chapter to understand the relationship between various structures of the system and their physiology
  • Review questions for self-assessment, including multiple choice questions
  • Many running textboxes containing valuable information, e.g. effect of ageing, embryological development, effect of exercise, tips to maintain health, etc., in every chapter
  • Careers related to each physiological system provided in the end of the chapter
  • Over 300 full-colour illustrations and 100 tables to help students memorize and recall vital concepts

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface v

Acknowledgement vii

CHAPTER 1 STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF HUMAN BODY 1

Introduction 1

  • Subdisciplines of Anatomy and Physiology 2

Anatomical Terminology 3

Basic Processes of the Human Body 5

Homeostasis 6

  • Control of Homeostasis 6
  • Feedback System 7
  • Homeostatic Imbalance 8

Levels of Structural Organization 9

  • The Cellular Level of Organization 10
  • The Tissue Level of Organization 31
  • The System Level of Organization 44

Diseases Associated with Cells and Tissues 48

  • Cancer 48

CHAPTER 2 THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 53

Structure of the Skin 53

  • The Epidermis 53
  • The Dermis 56
  • Colour of the Skin 57

Accessory Structures of the Skin 58

  • Hair 58
  • Nails 59
  • Skin Glands 60

Functions of the Integumentary System 61

Disorders of the Integumentary System 62

CHAPTER 3 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 71

Introduction 71

  • Functions of the Skeletal System 72

Structure of the Bone 72

Types of Bones 74

Histology of Bone Tissue 75

Types of Bone Tissues 76

Development of Bone Tissue or Formation of Bone 78

  • Remodelling of Bone 81
  • Factors Affecting Bone Growth and Bone Remodelling 81

Fracture and Healing of Bone 82

Divisions of the Skeletal System 84

  • Bone markings 85

The Axial Skeleton 86

  • Skull 86
  • Vertebral Column 93
  • Thoracic Cage 97

The Appendicular Skeleton 98

  • Shoulder (Pectoral) Girdle 98
  • Upper Limbs 100
  • Pelvic Girdle 101
  • Lower Limbs 102

Joints 104

  • Classification (Types) of Joints 104

Disorders Associated with the Skeletal System 108

  • Osteoporosis 108
  • Rickets 109
  • Osteomalacia 109
  • Osteomyelitis 109
  • Paget’s Disease 109
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis 109
  • Osteoarthritis 110
  • Arthritis 110
  • Gout 110
  • Bursitis 110

CHAPTER 4 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 117

  • Introduction 117
  • Functions of Muscle Tissue 117
  • Properties of Muscle Tissue 118
  • Types of Muscle Tissue 118

Skeletal Muscle Tissue 120

  • Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Tissue 120
  • Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Contraction 122
  • Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibres 129

Cardiac Muscle Tissue 130

Smooth Muscle Tissue 131

  • Microscopic Anatomy of Smooth Muscle Tissue 131
  • Physiology of Smooth Muscle Tissue 131

Skeletal Muscles in the Human Body 132

  • Muscle Terminology: Naming of Skeletal Muscles 133
  • Location and Function of Skeletal Muscles 134

Disorders Associated with the Muscular System 151

  • Myasthenia Gravis 151
  • Muscular Dystrophy 151
  • Crush Syndrome 151
  • Abnormal Contractions of Skeletal Muscles 151
  • Myositis 151
  • Myalgia 152
  • Muscle Atrophy and Hypertrophy 152

CHAPTER 5 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 159

Introduction 159

Overview of the Nervous System 160

  • Functions of the Nervous System 161
  • Organization of the Nervous System 162

Histology of Nervous Tissue 164

  • Neurons 164
  • Neuroglia 168
  • Grey and White Matter 169

The Physiology of Nerve Impulse (Action Potential) 170

The Synaptic Transmission 172

Response of Nervous Tissue to Injury 173

  • Repair of Neurons in the PNS 173
  • Repair of Neuroglia 173

Brain 174

  • The Cerebrum 181
  • The Diencephalon 189
  • The Brain Stem 193
  • The Cerebellum 194
  • Cranial Nerves 195

Spinal Cord 197

  • Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 197
  • Physiology of the Spinal Cord 199
  • Refl ex Arc 200
  • Spinal Nerves 202

The Autonomic Nervous System 206

  • Sympathetic Division 207
  • Parasympathetic Division 208

Pain Pathway 209

  • Pathways of Pain Sensation 210

Disorders Associated with the Nervous System 211

  • Stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident) 211
  • Epilepsy 212
  • Parkinson’s Disease 212
  • Neuritis 212
  • Alzheimer’s Disease 212
  • Multiple Sclerosis 213
  • Tetanus 213
  • Poliomyelitis 213
  • Brain Injury 214
  • Cerebral Palsy 214
  • Meningitis 214
  • Encephalitis 215
  • Hydrocephalus 215

CHAPTER 6 THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 223

Introduction 223

  • Hormones 226

Hypothalamus 228

  • Anatomical Structure 228
  • Hormones 228

Pituitary Gland 229

  • Anatomical Structure 229
  • Anterior Pituitary 230
  • Posterior Pituitary 233

Pineal Gland 234

  • Anatomical Structure 234
  • Hormones 234

Thyroid Gland 234

  • Anatomical Structure 234
  • Hormones 235

Parathyroid Glands 235

  • Anatomical Structure 235
  • Hormones 236

Adrenal Glands 237

  • Anatomical Structure 237
  • Adrenal Cortex 237
  • Adrenal Medulla 239

Pancreas 240

  • Anatomical Structure 240
  • Hormones 240

Gonads 242

  • Anatomical Structure 242
  • Hormones 242

Gastrointestinal Hormones 244

Other Endocrine Glands 244

Disorders Associated with the Endocrine System 245

  • Addison’s Disease 245
  • Diabetes Mellitus 245
  • Diabetes Insipidus 245
  • Goitre 245
  • Hyperthyroidism 245
  • Hypothyroidism 246
  • Acromegaly 246
  • Gigantism 246
  • Pituitary Dwarfi sm 246
  • Cushing’s Disease 247
  • Grave’s Disease (Thyrotoxicosis) 247
  • Myxedema 247
  • Cretinism 247

CHAPTER 7 THE BLOOD 257

Introduction 257

  • Properties of Blood 257
  • Functions of Blood 258

Components of Blood 260

  • Plasma 260
  • Blood Cells 263

Blood Groups 280

  • ABO Blood Group 280
  • Rh Blood Group 282

Blood Coagulation 284

Disorders Associated with Blood 289

  • Anaemia 289
  • Sickle Cell Anaemia 289
  • Haemophilia 289
  • Leukaemia 290
  • Thrombosis 290

CHAPTER 8 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 295

Introduction 295

The Lymphatic System 295

Lymph 296

  • Composition of Lymph 297
  • Formation of Lymph 297

Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph Circulation 298

  • Lymph Capillaries 298
  • Lymphatic Vessels 298
  • Lymphatic Trunk 299
  • Lymphatic Ducts 300
  • Flow of Lymph 302

Lymph Nodes 303

  • Structure of the Lymph Node 303
  • Functions of the Lymph Nodes 304

Organs of the Lymphatic System 305

  • Spleen 305
  • Thymus Gland 306
  • Lymphatic Nodule 308

Disorders Associated with the Lymphatic System 309

  • Lymphoid Leukaemia 309
  • Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 310
  • Lymphoedema 310
  • Acute Lymphadenitis 310
  • Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 310
  • Splenomegaly 310
  • Tonsillitis 310
  • Bubonic Plague 310

CHAPTER 9 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 315

Introduction 315

Nonspecific Resistance/Innate Immunity 317

Specific Resistance/Acquired Immunity 317

  • Cell-mediated/Cellular Immunity 317
  • Antibody Mediated Immunity or Humoral Immunity 320

Immunization 323

  • Passive Immunity 323
  • Active Immunity 324

Terminology Related to Immunity 325

  • Antigens 325
  • Antimicrobial Proteins 326
  • Natural Killer Cells 326
  • Phagocytes 326
  • Antibodies 326

  • Diseases Associated with the Immune System 329

  • Hypersensitivity (Allergy) 329
  • Autoimmune Diseases 330
  • Acquired Immune Defi ciency Syndrome (AIDS) 330

CHAPTER 10 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 337

Introduction 337

Anatomy of the Respiratory System 340

  • Nose and Nasal Cavity 340
  • Pharynx 344
  • Larynx 348
  • Trachea 352
  • Bronchi, Bronchioles and Alveoli 354
  • Lungs 357

Physiology of the Respiratory System 360

  • Basic Steps in Respiration 360
  • Cycle of Respiration 362
  • Lung Volumes and Capacities 364
  • Pulmonary Function Tests 367
  • Breathing Patterns and Modifi ed Respiratory Movements 369
  • Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Bloodstream 371
  • Regulation of Respiration 374
  • Artificial Respiration 376
  • Disorders of the Respiratory System 377

CHAPTER 11 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 395

Introduction 395

Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart 396

  • Position 398
  • Location 398
  • Structure 399
  • Flow of Blood Through the Heart 404

Blood Circulation 404

  • Systemic circulation 404
  • Pulmonary Circulation 409
  • Fetal Circulation 411

Cardiac Conduction System 413

  • Action Potential in Cardiac Muscle 414

The Cardiac Cycle 415

  • Stages of Cardiac Cycle 415

Heart Sounds 418

  • Different Heart Sounds 419
  • Importance of Heart Sounds 419

Electrocardiogram 420

  • Electrocardiograph or ECG Machine 420

Blood Pressure 422

  • Variations in BP 423
  • Determinants of BP—Factors that Maintain BP 424
  • Regulation of BP 425

Cardiac Output 429

  • Variations in CO 429
  • Regulation of CO 430

Heart Rate 433

  • Regulation of Heart Rate 433

Disorders of the Cardiovascular System 434

  • Coronary Artery Disease 434
  • Congestive Heart Failure 436
  • Cardiac Murmurs 437
  • Pericarditis 437
  • Myocarditis 438
  • Endocarditis 438
  • Ischaemic Heart Disease 438
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia 439
  • Congenital Abnormalities 439
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease 443
  • Hypertension 443

CHAPTER 12 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 451

Introduction 451

Components of the Digestive System 452

Layers of the Digestive System 453

  • Mucosa 454
  • Submucosa 455
  • Muscularis/Muscle Layer 455
  • Adventitia/Serosa/peritoneum 456

Neuronal Control of the GI Tract—The Enteric Nervous System 457

Blood Circulation of the Digestive System—

Splanchnic Circulation 458

Components of the Gastrointestinal Tract 459

  • Mouth 459
  • Pharynx 465
  • Oesophagus 466
  • Stomach 469
  • Small Intestine 476
  • Large Intestine 481

Accessory Organs 485

  • Liver 485
  • Gallbladder 489
  • Pancreas 491
  • Salivary Glands 494

Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients in the GI Tract 496

  • Basic Mechanism of Digestion 496
  • Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates 498
  • Digestion and Absorption of Proteins 498
  • Digestion and Absorption of Fats 499

Diseases of the Digestive System 500

  • Diseases of the Mouth 500
  • Diseases of the Salivary Glands 502
  • Diseases of the Oesophagus 503
  • Diseases of the Stomach 503
  • Diseases of the Intestine 504
  • Diseases of the Pancreas 506
  • Diseases of the Liver 506
  • Diseases of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts 507
  • Other Diseases of Digestive System 508

CHAPTER 13 THE URINARY SYSTEM 515

Introduction 515

Organs of the Urinary System 515

  • Functions of the Urinary System 516
  • Kidney 517
  • Ureters 532
  • Urinary Bladder 532
  • Urethra 533

Micturition 534

  • Micturition Refl ex 534

Disorders of the Urinary System 535

  • Urinary Tract Infections 535
  • Glomerulonephritis 535
  • Polycystic Disease 535
  • Pyelonephritis 536
  • Nephrotic Syndrome 536
  • Acute Renal Failure 536
  • Chronic Renal Failure 536
  • Renal Calculi 536
  • Tumour of the Urinary Bladder 536
  • Nephroptosis or Floating Kidney 537
  • Other Diseases of Urinary System 537

CHAPTER 14 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 545

Introduction 545

Male Reproductive System 545

  • Testes 546
  • Ducts of Testis 552
  • Accessory glands 554
  • Supporting Structures 556

Female Reproductive System 557

  • Ovary 558
  • Fallopian/Uterine Tubes 562
  • Uterus or Womb 563
  • Vagina 564
  • Vulva or External Female Genitalia 565
  • Mammary Glands or Breasts 567
  • Role of Different Hormones in the Female Reproductive System 568
  • Menstrual Cycle 569
  • Pregnancy, Embryonic Development and Parturition 573

Diseases Associated with the Reproductive System 575

  • Functional Problems 575
  • Cancers of Reproductive Organs 575
  • Infections in the Reproductive System 575
  • Congenital Abnormalities 576
  • Other Diseases of the Reproductive System 576

CHAPTER 15 THE SENSE ORGANS 585

Introduction 585

Eyes (Organs of Sight) 585

  • Structure of the Eye 586
  • Accessory Structures of the Eye 592
  • Physiology of Vision 593

Ears: The Organs of Hearing and Equilibrium 599

  • Structure of the Ear 599
  • Physiology of Hearing 603
  • Physiology of Equilibrium 605

Sense of Smell 607

  • Olfactory Receptors 607
  • Physiology of Olfaction (Smell) 607
  • Olfactory Pathway 607

Sense of Taste 608

  • Taste Buds 608
  • Physiology of Gustation (Taste) 609

Diseases Associated with Sense Organs 610

  • Otitis Media 610
  • Meniere’s Disease 610
  • Conjunctivitis 610
  • Glaucoma 610
  • Cataract 610
  • Refractive Errors of the Eye 610

Appendices Health Education 619

Appendix A: Concept of Health and Disease 619

  • Health 619
  • Disease 619

Appendix B: Nutrition and Health 621

Appendix C: Demography and Family Planning 624

  • Demography 624
  • Family Planning 624

Appendix D: Communicable Diseases 626

  • Chicken Pox (varicella) 626
  • Measles or Rubeola 626
  • Influenza 627
  • Leprosy 627
  • Syphilis 628
  • Gonorrhoea 628
  • Diphtheria 628
  • Whooping Cough (Pertussis) 629
  • Tuberculosis (TB) 629
  • Poliomyelitis 630
  • Tetanus 630
  • Rabies 631
  • Trachoma 632

Details

No. of pages:
667
Language:
English
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier India
Paperback ISBN:
9788131231005

About the Author

Rohini Agrawal