Methods of sectioning 266 autopsy spines
Section 1: Normal Anatomy
1 Structure and function
2 Disc: its part and their functions
3 Facets: structure and function
4 Nerves: In spinal canal and intervertebral foramen
5 Muscles and Movement
Section 2: Age changes
1 Osteoporosis: effects on vertebrae and on disc shape
2 Degenerative changes in discs
3 Disc fissuring and disc protrusion
4 Decline in ranges of movement with increase in age
5 Increase creep with age
6 Facet changes: arthritic changes; remodeling
7 Spinal stenosis and nerve impingement
8 Severe disc changes and segmental instability
9 Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis
10 Facet joint fat pads: their increase in early instability
Section 3: Injuries
1 Thoracic and lumbar injuries contrast with cervical injuries
2 Vertebral end-plate fracture and collapse
3 Facet joint injuries: which are often occult.
Section 4: Lower Back Pain and Radicular Pain
1 The lumbar spine and cancer metastases.
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier 2021
- 15th April 2021
- eBook ISBN:
- Paperback ISBN:
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