Analytical Microbiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483231297, 9781483270548

Analytical Microbiology

1st Edition

Editors: Frederick Kavanagh
eBook ISBN: 9781483270548
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 724
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Description

Analytical Microbiology focuses on the processes, methodologies, developments, and approaches involved in analytical microbiology, including microbiological, antibiotic, and amino acid assays and dilution methods.

The selection first offers information on the theory of antibiotic inhibition zones, microbiological assay using large plate methods, and dilution methods of antibiotic assays. Discussions focus on serial dilution assay, requirements for accurate assay, microbiological assay of riboflavin, laws of adsorption and partition, mechanisms of antibiotic action, and biological considerations affecting the use of statistical methods. The text then ponders on the elements of photometric assaying and automation of microbiological assays.

The manuscript elaborates on antibiotic substances, vitamins, and amino acids. Topics include assay organisms, validity, specificity, reliability, and calculation of results of amino acid assays, bacitracin, chloramphenicol, dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, neomycin, and streptomycin.

The selection is a dependable reference for researchers interested in analytical microbiology.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1 The Theory of Antibiotic Inhibition Zones

I. Introduction. The Principles Involved

II. The Laws of Diffusion

III. The Laws of Growth and Multiplication

IV. The Laws of Absorption and Partition

V. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Action

VI. Some Biological Considerations Affecting the Use of Statistical Methods

VII. Other Uses of Diffusion Methods

VIII. Sensitivity Tests

IX. Summary of Antibiotic Zone Formation

Chapter 2 Microbiological Assay Using Large Plate Methods

I. Introduction

II. Requirements for Accurate Assay

III. Assay Designs

IV. Microbiological Assay of Penicillin

V. Microbiological Assay of Riboflavin

VI. Interpretation of Results

VII. Sources of Errors

VIII. Validity of Assay

Chapter 3 Dilution Methods of Antibiotic Assays

I. Streak-Plate Method

II. Serial Dilution Assay

III. Antiluminescent Assay

Chapter 4 Elements of Photometric Assaying

I. Introduction

II. Physical Factors Influencing Turbidity

III. Calibration of Photometers

IV. Inoculum

V. Media

VI. Incubation

VII. Response of Bacteria

VIII. Modes of Expressing Response

IX. Design and Validity

X. Sensitivity

XI. Meaning of a Photometric Response

XII. Variations and Errors

Chapter 5 Automation of Microbiological Assays

I. Introduction

II. Mechanization of Manual Methods

III. Continuous Flow Methods

IV. Computations

Chapter 6 Antibiotic Substances

Part I Antibacterial Assays

6.1 Introduction

I. Plan of the Chapter

II. Sources of Standard Preparations

III. Interferences

IV. Solubilities

6.2 Bacitracin

I. Introduction

II. Test Organisms

III. Standard Solutions

IV. Sample Preparation

V. Mechanics of the Assay

VI. Measuring the Response

VII. Computation of Answers

6.3 Cephalosporin C

I. Introduction

II. Plate Assay

III. Large Plate Assay

6.4 Chlorymphenicol

I. Introduction

II. Cylinder Plate Assay Method

III. Turbidimetric Assay Method

6.5 Dihydrostreptomycm

I. Introduction

II. Turbidimetric Assay

III. Plate Assay for Dihydrostreptomycm and Streptomycin

6.6 Erythromycin

I. Introduction

II. Turbidimetric Method

III. Plate Assay

6.7 Fumagillin

I. Introduction

II. Plate Method

III. Spectrophotometric Method

IV. Other Methods

6.8 Hygromycin B

I. Introduction

II. Test Organism

III. Standard Solutions

IV. Sample Preparation

V. Mechanics of the Assay

VI. Measuring the Response

VII. Computation of Answers

6.9 Neomycin

I. Introduction

II. Test Organisms

III. Standard Solutions

IV. Sample Preparation

V. Mechanics of the Assay

VI. Measuring the Response

VII. Computation of Answers

6.10 Penicillins

I. Introduction

II. Photometric Assay

III. Petri Plate Assay

IV. Large Plate Assay

V. Hydroxamic Acid Method

6.11 Penicillin V

I. Photometric Method

II. Plate Method

6.12 Polymyxin

I. Introduction

II. Test Organism

III. Standard Solutions

IV. Sample Preparation

V. Mechanics of the Assay

VI. Measuring the Response

VII. Computation of Answers

6.13 Ristocetin

I. Introduction

II. Turbidimetric Method

III. Blood Assay Method

IV. Plate Method

V.Salt Plate Method

6.1a Streptomycin

I. Introduction

II. Turbidimetric Assay

III. Plate Assay

6.15 Tetracydines

Text

6.16 Thiostrepton

I. Introduction

II. Test Organism

III. Preparation of Standards and Samples for Assay

IV. Assay Design

V. Thiostrepton in Milk

6.17 Tylosin

I. Introduction

II. Photometric Assay

III. Plate Assay

6.18 Vancomycin

I. Introduction

II. Turbidimetric Method

III. Bacillus subtilis Plate Assay

IV. Staphylococcus aureus Plate Assay

6.19 Media and Buffers

Text

Part II Antifungal Assays

I. Introduction

II. Turbidimetric Methods

III. Agar Dilution Assay Method

IV. Diffusion in Agar

V. Respirometric Method of Assay

Chapter 7 Vitamins

7.1 Introduction

Text

7.2 pH as Assay Response

Text

7.3 Specificity

Text

7.4 Biotin

I. Text Organism

II. Standard Solution

III. Stability of Compound

IV. Preparations of Samples for Assay

V. Preservation of the Test Organism

VI. Preparation of Inoculum

VII. Medium

VIII. Design of the Assay

IX. Assay Conditions

X. Reading the Assay

XI. Computation of Answers

XII. Other Assay Methods for Biotin

7.5 The Folic Acid Group

I. Introduction

II. Preparation of Samples for Assay

III. Microbiological Assay Methods

IV. Agar Diffusion Methods

V. Chemical Methods for Folic Acid

VI. Critical Evaluation of the Microbiological Assay of Folic Acid and Related Compounds

7.6 Agar Plate Assays for Pantothenic Acid, Inositol, and Pyridoxine

I. Introduction

II. Test Organism

III. Standard Solutions

IV. Sample Preparation

V. Mechanics of the Assay

VI. Measuring the Response

VII. Computation of Answers

7.7 Pantothenic Acid and Related Compounds

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Treating Natural Products to Release Total Pantothenate Activity

III. Assay Procedures for Components of Co A in Natural Products

IV. Assay Procedures for Pantothenic Acid and Panthenol in Pharmaceutical Products

7.8 Riboflavin

Text

7.9 Turbidimetric Assay for Thiamine

I. Test Organism

II. Standard Solution

III. Stability of Compound

IV. Preparation of Sample for Assay

V. Preservation of Test Organism

VI. Preparation of Inoculum

VII. Media

VIII. Design of Assay

IX. Assay Conditions

X. Reading the Assay

XI. Calculation of Results

7.10 Vitamin B12 and Congeners

I. Introduction

II. Turbidimetric Methods

III. Plate Methods

IV. Nonmicrobiological Methods

7.11 Lactobacillus leichmannii Assay for Vitamin B12

I. Test Organism

II. Standard Solutions

III. Stability of Cobalamins

IV. Activity and pH

V. Preparation of Sample for Assay

VI. Preservation of Test Organisms

VII. Preparation of Inoculum

VIII. Media

IX. Design of the Assay

X. Assay Conditions

XI. Special Precautions

XII. Reading the Assay

Chapter 8 Amino Acids

I. Introduction

II. Comparison of Microbiological Assays to Other Available Methods

III. The Assay Organisms

IV. The Lactic Acid Bacteria (Lactobacteriaceae)

V. Measurement of Response to Amino Acids

VI. Validity, Specificity, Reliability, and Calculation of Results of Amino Acid Assays

VII. Preparation of Sample for Assay

VIII. Assay Media

IX. Apparatus, Instruments, General Methods, and Techniques

X. Recommended Turbidimetric Assays

XL Recommended Titrimetric Assays

XII. Alternative Methods for Amino Acid Assays

XIII. Inhibition Assays

Chapter 9 Glucose

I. Organism

II. Inoculum

III. Glucose Assay

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
724
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1963
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483270548

About the Editor

Frederick Kavanagh