Analytical Microbiology

Analytical Microbiology

Volume II

1st Edition - January 1, 1972

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  • Editor: Frederick Kavanagh
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483270555

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Description

Analytical Microbiology, Volume II is a six-chapter work that covers the significant changes and improvements made in the theory and practice of analytical microbiology. The first chapter is devoted to the theoretical aspects of assaying of specific compounds. These topics are followed by discussions of the theoretical and practical aspects of diffusions assays, as well as the theoretical developments of photometric methods of assay, including their improvement resulting from automation. A chapter explores the assay methods for various antibiotic groups. Another chapter discusses the advances in assay technology and analytically important interrelations among the folic acid complex. The last chapter describes a simple diffusion method designed for the assay of certain amino acids in a wide variety of samples. This book will prove useful to analytical microbiologists.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Contents of Volume I

    Errata and Additions (Volume I)

    1 Introduction

    I Introduction

    II Official Methods

    III Causes of Assay Error

    IV Some Definitions

    References

    2 Diffusion Assays

    2.1 The Theory of Antibiotic Diffusion Zones

    I Introduction

    II Diffusion

    III Growth and Multiplication

    IV Adsorption

    V Mechanisms of Action

    VI Assay

    VII Special Methods

    VIII Sensitivity Tests

    IX Exhibition Zones

    References

    2.2 An Approach to Accurate Diffusion Assays

    I Introduction

    II Operations

    References

    3 Photometric Assaying

    I Introduction

    II Kinetics of Drug and Microbe Interaction

    III Scattering of Light by Microorganisms

    IV Measurement of Turbidity

    V Dose-Response Lines

    VI Assay Errors

    VII Automation

    VIII Designing an Antibiotic Assay

    References

    4 Antibiotic Substances

    4.1 Introduction

    I Plan of Chapter

    II Sources of Standards

    III Outline of F.D.A. Methods

    IV Interference Thresholds in F.D.A. Assays

    V Solubilities of Antibiotics

    VI Buffers and Media

    References

    4.2 Amphotericin B and Nystatin

    I Introduction

    II Turbidimetric Methods

    III Agar Diffusion Methods

    IV Respirometric Methods

    V Nystatin and Amphotericin B in Body Fluids and Animal Tissues

    VI Method for Nystatin in Animal Feed

    References

    4.3 Capreomycin

    I Introduction

    II Photometric Assay

    III Plate Assay

    IV Chromatographic Separation of Capreomycins I and II

    References

    4.4 Biochemistry of Cephalosporins

    I Introduction

    II Enzymic Degradation

    III Stability in Solution

    IV Sample Preparation

    V Assay Methods

    VI Interpretation of Assays

    References

    4.5 Cephalexin

    I Introduction

    II Sample Preparation

    III Plate Assay

    IV Bioautography

    4.6 Cephaloglycin

    I Introduction

    II Sample Preparation

    III Plate Assay

    IV Photometric Assay

    V Bioautography

    4.7 Cephaloridine

    I Introduction

    II Microbiological Assays

    Reference

    4.8 Cephalothin

    I Introduction

    II Plate Assays

    III Photometric Assay

    IV Bioautography

    Reference

    4.9 Large Plate Assay of Cephaloridine

    I Introduction

    II Test Organism

    III Preparation of Concentrated and Dilute Spore Suspensions

    IV Standard Solutions

    V Sample Preparation

    VI Mechanics of the Assay

    4.10 Assay of Mixtures of Active and Inactive Cephalosporins

    I Introduction

    II Organisms

    III Assay of Cephaloridine or Cephalothin

    IV Assay of β-Lactamase-Resistant Cephalosporins

    V Assay of Mixtures of Both Types of Cephalosporins

    References

    4.11 Rapid Assay of Some Nephrotoxic Antibiotics and the Assay of Antibiotics in Mixtures

    I Introduction

    II Plate Methods

    III Other Methods

    IV Assay of Mixtures of Pencillins and Cephalosporins in the Presence of a Third Antibiotic

    References

    4.12 Clindamycin

    I Microbiological Assay

    II Vapor Phase Chromatography

    References

    4.13 Cycloheximide

    I Introduction

    II Paper-Disc Agar-Diffusion Assay

    III Cylinder Plate Assay

    References

    4.14 Cycloserine

    I Introduction

    II High-Level Plate Assay

    III Low-Level Plate Assay

    IV Chemical Assay

    References

    4.15 Erythromycin

    I Introduction

    II Hydrolysis of Esters

    III Stability of Solutions

    IV Turbidimetric Assay

    V Diffusion Assay

    References

    4.16 Gentamicin

    I Introduction

    II Plate Assay

    III Differential Chromatographic Bioassay for Gentamicin Complex

    IV Differential Chromatographic Bioassay (Official FDA Procedure)

    V Differential Ninhydrin Chromatographic Assay

    References

    4.17 Griseofulvin

    I Introduction

    II Plate Assay

    4.18 Lincomycin

    I Introduction

    II Cylinder Plate Method

    III Blood Assay Method

    IV Paper Disc Method

    V Vapor Phase Chromatography Method

    References

    4.19 Monensin

    I Introduction

    II Design of the Turbidimetric Assay

    III Test Organism

    IV Standard Solutions

    V Preparation of Samples of Feeds

    VI Mechanics of the Sensitive Assay

    VII Interfering Substances

    VIII Assay of Low Sensitivity

    IX Manual Method

    References

    4.20 Neomycin

    I Introduction

    II Chemical Structures

    III Response Differences of Neomycins B and C

    IV The Standards Dilemma

    V Diffusion Methods

    VI Turbidimetric Assay

    References

    4.21 Novobiocin

    I Introduction

    II Test Organism

    III Stock Standard Solution

    IV Sample Preparation

    V Mechanics of the Assay

    VI Novobiocin in Serum

    VII Novobiocin in Urine

    References

    4.22 Preservatives

    I Introduction

    II Test Organisms

    III Standard Solutions

    IV Sample Preparation

    V Mechanics of the Assay

    4.23 Pyrrolnitrin

    I Introduction

    II Agar Diffusion and Tube Dilution Sensitivity Test Methods

    III Paper-Disc Agar-Diffusion Assay Method for Fermentation and Isolation

    Samples

    IV Microbiological Determination of the Duration of Pyrrolnitrin Applied Topically in Vivo

    References

    4.24 Spectinomycin

    I Introduction

    II Diffusion Assays

    III Turbidimetric Assay

    References

    4.25 Thimerosal

    I Introduction

    II Design of a Photometric Assay

    III Organism and Inoculum

    IV Standard

    V Preparation of Samples

    VI Assay Medium

    VII Test Set-Up

    4.26 Thiostrepton

    I Introduction

    II Agar Diffusion Methods

    III Automated Turbidimetric Method

    References

    4.27 Tolnaftate

    I Introduction

    II Plate Assay

    Reference

    4.28 Tylosin in Feeds

    I Introduction

    II Preparation of Samples for Assay

    III Details of the Assay

    IV Commentary

    4.29 Microbiological Assay of the Tetracyclines

    I Introduction

    II General Conditions

    III Turbidimetric Assay

    IV Agar Diffusion Assays

    References

    5 Folic Acid and Pteridine

    Introduction

    5.1 Chemical and Biochemical Reactions of Folic Acid

    I Nomenclature and Structure

    II Properties

    III Reactions and Interconversions of Folic Acid

    IV Microbiological Activity of Various Forms of Folic Acid

    V Metabolic Reactions of Folic Acid Coenzymes

    References

    5.2 Differential Assays of Folic Acid in Animal Tissues

    I Introduction

    II Evolution of Folate Assay Procedures

    III Use of Combined Criteria for Differential Assays of Folates

    IV Recommended Procedures

    V Interpretation of Results

    References

    5.3 Assay for Folic Acid Activity in Blood

    I Historical Introduction

    II Assay Microorganisms, Inoculation Broth, and Inoculum

    III Choice and Preparation of Basal Medium

    IV The Reference Standard

    V Procedures for Setting Up the Assay

    VI Calculating the Assay Results

    VII Washing the Glassware

    VIII Choice of an Incubator for the Assays

    References

    5.4 Assays for Unconjugated Pteridines (Crithidia Factor), Alone or Unconjugated, and Conjugated Pteridines

    I Introduction

    II Methods Applicable to all Turbidimetric Assays

    III Specific Microbial Assay Methods

    References

    6 Large Plate Assays for Amino Acids

    I Introduction

    II General Outline of Large Plate Assays

    III Comparison of Large Plate Assays to Other Methods

    IV Test Organisms

    V Assay Media

    VI Assay Procedure

    VII Preparation of Samples

    VIII Validity and Precision of Assays

    IX Sources of Error

    X Future Developments

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 650
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1972
  • Published: January 1, 1972
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483270555

About the Editor

Frederick Kavanagh

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