Analytical Microbiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124035027, 9781483270555

Analytical Microbiology

1st Edition

Volume II

Editors: Frederick Kavanagh
eBook ISBN: 9781483270555
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 650
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Description

Analytical Microbiology, Volume II is a six-chapter work that covers the significant changes and improvements made in the theory and practice of analytical microbiology.

The first chapter is devoted to the theoretical aspects of assaying of specific compounds. These topics are followed by discussions of the theoretical and practical aspects of diffusions assays, as well as the theoretical developments of photometric methods of assay, including their improvement resulting from automation. A chapter explores the assay methods for various antibiotic groups. Another chapter discusses the advances in assay technology and analytically important interrelations among the folic acid complex. The last chapter describes a simple diffusion method designed for the assay of certain amino acids in a wide variety of samples.

This book will prove useful to analytical microbiologists.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of Volume I

Errata and Additions (Volume I)

1 Introduction

I Introduction

II Official Methods

III Causes of Assay Error

IV Some Definitions

References

2 Diffusion Assays

2.1 The Theory of Antibiotic Diffusion Zones

I Introduction

II Diffusion

III Growth and Multiplication

IV Adsorption

V Mechanisms of Action

VI Assay

VII Special Methods

VIII Sensitivity Tests

IX Exhibition Zones

References

2.2 An Approach to Accurate Diffusion Assays

I Introduction

II Operations

References

3 Photometric Assaying

I Introduction

II Kinetics of Drug and Microbe Interaction

III Scattering of Light by Microorganisms

IV Measurement of Turbidity

V Dose-Response Lines

VI Assay Errors

VII Automation

VIII Designing an Antibiotic Assay

References

4 Antibiotic Substances

4.1 Introduction

I Plan of Chapter

II Sources of Standards

III Outline of F.D.A. Methods

IV Interference Thresholds in F.D.A. Assays

V Solubilities of Antibiotics

VI Buffers and Media

References

4.2 Amphotericin B and Nystatin

I Introduction

II Turbidimetric Methods

III Agar Diffusion Methods

IV Respirometric Methods

V Nystatin and Amphotericin B in Body Fluids and Animal Tissues

VI Method for Nystatin in Animal Feed

References

4.3 Capreomycin

I Introduction

II Photometric Assay

III Plate Assay

IV Chromatographic Separation of Capreomycins I and II

References

4.4 Biochemistry of Cephalosporins

I Introduction

II Enzymic Degradation

III Stability in Solution

IV Sample Preparation

V Assay Methods

VI Interpretation of Assays

References

4.5 Cephalexin

I Introduction

II Sample Preparation

III Plate Assay

IV Bioautography

4.6 Cephaloglycin

I Introduction

II Sample Preparation

III Plate Assay

IV Photometric Assay

V Bioautography

4.7 Cephaloridine

I Introduction

II Microbiological Assays

Reference

4.8 Cephalothin

I Introduction

II Plate Assays

III Photometric Assay

IV Bioautography

Reference

4.9 Large Plate Assay of Cephaloridine

I Introduction

II Test Organism

III Preparation of Concentrated and Dilute Spore Suspensions

IV Standard Solutions

V Sample Preparation

VI Mechanics of the Assay

4.10 Assay of Mixtures of Active and Inactive Cephalosporins

I Introduction

II Organisms

III Assay of Cephaloridine or Cephalothin

IV Assay of β-Lactamase-Resistant Cephalosporins

V Assay of Mixtures of Both Types of Cephalosporins

References

4.11 Rapid Assay of Some Nephrotoxic Antibiotics and the Assay of Antibiotics in Mixtures

I Introduction

II Plate Methods

III Other Methods

IV Assay of Mixtures of Pencillins and Cephalosporins in the Presence of a Third Antibiotic

References

4.12 Clindamycin

I Microbiological Assay

II Vapor Phase Chromatography

References

4.13 Cycloheximide

I Introduction

II Paper-Disc Agar-Diffusion Assay

III Cylinder Plate Assay

References

4.14 Cycloserine

I Introduction

II High-Level Plate Assay

III Low-Level Plate Assay

IV Chemical Assay

References

4.15 Erythromycin

I Introduction

II Hydrolysis of Esters

III Stability of Solutions

IV Turbidimetric Assay

V Diffusion Assay

References

4.16 Gentamicin

I Introduction

II Plate Assay

III Differential Chromatographic Bioassay for Gentamicin Complex

IV Differential Chromatographic Bioassay (Official FDA Procedure)

V Differential Ninhydrin Chromatographic Assay

References

4.17 Griseofulvin

I Introduction

II Plate Assay

4.18 Lincomycin

I Introduction

II Cylinder Plate Method

III Blood Assay Method

IV Paper Disc Method

V Vapor Phase Chromatography Method

References

4.19 Monensin

I Introduction

II Design of the Turbidimetric Assay

III Test Organism

IV Standard Solutions

V Preparation of Samples of Feeds

VI Mechanics of the Sensitive Assay

VII Interfering Substances

VIII Assay of Low Sensitivity

IX Manual Method

References

4.20 Neomycin

I Introduction

II Chemical Structures

III Response Differences of Neomycins B and C

IV The Standards Dilemma

V Diffusion Methods

VI Turbidimetric Assay

References

4.21 Novobiocin

I Introduction

II Test Organism

III Stock Standard Solution

IV Sample Preparation

V Mechanics of the Assay

VI Novobiocin in Serum

VII Novobiocin in Urine

References

4.22 Preservatives

I Introduction

II Test Organisms

III Standard Solutions

IV Sample Preparation

V Mechanics of the Assay

4.23 Pyrrolnitrin

I Introduction

II Agar Diffusion and Tube Dilution Sensitivity Test Methods

III Paper-Disc Agar-Diffusion Assay Method for Fermentation and Isolation

Samples

IV Microbiological Determination of the Duration of Pyrrolnitrin Applied Topically in Vivo

References

4.24 Spectinomycin

I Introduction

II Diffusion Assays

III Turbidimetric Assay

References

4.25 Thimerosal

I Introduction

II Design of a Photometric Assay

III Organism and Inoculum

IV Standard

V Preparation of Samples

VI Assay Medium

VII Test Set-Up

4.26 Thiostrepton

I Introduction

II Agar Diffusion Methods

III Automated Turbidimetric Method

References

4.27 Tolnaftate

I Introduction

II Plate Assay

Reference

4.28 Tylosin in Feeds

I Introduction

II Preparation of Samples for Assay

III Details of the Assay

IV Commentary

4.29 Microbiological Assay of the Tetracyclines

I Introduction

II General Conditions

III Turbidimetric Assay

IV Agar Diffusion Assays

References

5 Folic Acid and Pteridine

Introduction

5.1 Chemical and Biochemical Reactions of Folic Acid

I Nomenclature and Structure

II Properties

III Reactions and Interconversions of Folic Acid

IV Microbiological Activity of Various Forms of Folic Acid

V Metabolic Reactions of Folic Acid Coenzymes

References

5.2 Differential Assays of Folic Acid in Animal Tissues

I Introduction

II Evolution of Folate Assay Procedures

III Use of Combined Criteria for Differential Assays of Folates

IV Recommended Procedures

V Interpretation of Results

References

5.3 Assay for Folic Acid Activity in Blood

I Historical Introduction

II Assay Microorganisms, Inoculation Broth, and Inoculum

III Choice and Preparation of Basal Medium

IV The Reference Standard

V Procedures for Setting Up the Assay

VI Calculating the Assay Results

VII Washing the Glassware

VIII Choice of an Incubator for the Assays

References

5.4 Assays for Unconjugated Pteridines (Crithidia Factor), Alone or Unconjugated, and Conjugated Pteridines

I Introduction

II Methods Applicable to all Turbidimetric Assays

III Specific Microbial Assay Methods

References

6 Large Plate Assays for Amino Acids

I Introduction

II General Outline of Large Plate Assays

III Comparison of Large Plate Assays to Other Methods

IV Test Organisms

V Assay Media

VI Assay Procedure

VII Preparation of Samples

VIII Validity and Precision of Assays

IX Sources of Error

X Future Developments

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
650
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483270555

About the Editor

Frederick Kavanagh