Analytical Geochemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444408266, 9780444601384

Analytical Geochemistry, Volume 5

1st Edition

Authors: L Brealey
eBook ISBN: 9780444601384
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 441
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Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction to Geochemistry

Introduction

Chemical classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks

Hydrothermal processes

Geothermometry

Chemical solubility products

Fluidization

Organic geochemistry

Chapter 2. Qualitative Analysis

Introduction

Microchemical tests

Membrane colorimetry

Antimony

Arsenic

Bismuth

Cadmium

Chromium

Cobalt

Copper

Gold

Iron

Lead

Manganese

Mercury

Molybdenum

Nickel

Silver

Sulphur

Tin

Titanium

Tungsten

Vanadium

Zinc

Chapter 3. Quantitative Chemical Analysis

Introduction

Preparation of solutions

Determination of silica

Determination of alumina from solution A

Preparation of solution B

Determination of alumina from solution B

Determination of titanium dioxide in solution B

Determination of total iron as Fe203 from solution B

Determination of manganese in solution B

Determination of phosphorus pentoxide in solution B

Determination of calcium oxide in solution B

Determination of magnesia

Determination of sodium and potassium oxides in solution B

Determination of ferrous oxide in silicate rocks

Determination of carbon dioxide and water in silicate rocks

The analysis of carbonate rocks

Silica

Alumina

Titanium oxide

Total iron

Manganese oxide

Phosphorus pentoxide

Sodium oxide and potassium oxide

Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide and magnesium oxide

Magnesium oxide

The analysis of phosphate rocks

Chapter 4. The Chemical Analysis of the Minor Elements

Introduction

Antimony

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Arsenic

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Barium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Beryllium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Bismuth

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Boron

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Bromine

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Cadmium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Carbon

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Cerium and rare-earth elements

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Chlorine

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Chromium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Cobalt

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Columbium and tantalum

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Copper

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Fluorine

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Gallium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Germanium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Gold

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Hydrogen

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Indium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Iodine

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Iridium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Lead

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Lithium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Manganese

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Mercury

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Molybdenum

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Nickel

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Nitrogen

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Osmium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Oxygen

Detection

Estimation

Palladium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Platinum

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Rhenium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Rhodium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Rubidium and caesium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Ruthenium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Scandium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Selenium and tellurium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Silver

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Stronium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Sulphur

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Thallium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Thorium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Tin

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Titanium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Tungsten

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Uranium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Vanadium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Zinc

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Zirconium and hafnium

Occurrence

Detection

Estimation

Chapter 5. Emission Spectrography

Introduction

The origin of spectral lines

Spectrographic equipment

The source unit

Flame sources

Direct current arc sources

Spark sources

Porous cup technique

Rotating disc technique

Vacuum cup technique

The spectrograph

Preparation of samples and standards

Preparation and filling of electrodes

Qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis

Quantitative analysis

The analysis of geochemical samples

The inorganic content of organic extracts from coal

Spectrographic analysis of box-stones from the Northampton Ironstone

Chapter 6. Flame Photometry

Introduction

Equipment

The source unit

The optical unit

The detector

Scope of the method

Accuracy of the method

Interferences

Analytical techniques

Direct method from calibration curve

Background correction

Dilution method

The standard addition technique

The internal standard method

The use of spectroscopic buffers

Solvent extraction

Ion exchange methods

Chapter 7. X-ray Spectrography

Introduction

The origin of X-ray spectra

The excitation of spectra

Fluorescent spectra

Instrumentation

The source unit

The spectrometer

The detector

Measurement of line intensity

The preparation of samples for analysis

Solid samples

Powder samples

Briquetted samples

Fused samples

Solution samples

Qualitative analysis

Quantitative analysis

Applications

The electron probe microanalyser

Chapter 8. X-ray Diffraction

Introduction

Method of X-ray crystal analysis

Laue method

Rotating crystal methods

Powder methods

The powder technique

Equipment

Sample preparation

Choice of conditions

Type of radiation

Choice of filter and working voltage

Interpretation of results

Measurement of spacings

Measurements of relative intensities

Use of the A.S.T.M. index

Quantitative analysis

The X-ray diffractometer

Applications of X-ray diffraction techniques

Chapter 9. Fluorimetry

Introduction

The origin of fluorescence insolutions

Quantitative considerations

The measurement of fluorescence

Instrumentation

The amplifier

The cuvettes

Geochemical applications

Chapter 10. Chromatography

Introduction

Paper and thin layer chromatography

Reagents for inorganic paper chromatography

Column chromatography

Gas or vapour-phase chromatography

The equipment for gas chromatography

The gas supply

Sample injection

The Chromatographie column

Detectors

Thermal conductivity detectors

Gas density meters

Flame temperature detectors

Flame ionisation detectors

Argon ionisation detectors

The complete equipment

Qualitative analysis Chromatographie analysis

Quantitative analysis Chromatographie analysis

The choice of stationary phase

Pyrochromatography

The pyrolysis unit

Geochemical applications

References

Index







Description

Analytical Geochemistry is the fifth book in the Methods in Geochemistry and Geophysics series. This book serves as an introductory manual, presenting techniques that are frequently required in the analysis of rocks and minerals.
After a broad introduction to geochemistry, the book explores qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. It then focuses on the chemical analysis of the minor elements, such as antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromine, cadmium, carbon, cerium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, columbium and tantalum, copper, fluorine, gallium, germanium, gold, hydrogen, indium, iodine, iridium, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen, osmium, oxygen, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, rubidium and cesium, ruthenium, scandium, selenium and tellurium, silver, strontium, sulfur, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and zirconium and hafnium.
The remaining chapters of the book illustrate different laboratory instruments, including emission spectrography, flame photometry, X-ray diffraction, fluorimetry, and chromatography. This book serves as a guide for geologists especially those who did not study chemistry as undergraduates.


Details

No. of pages:
441
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1971
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444601384

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About the Authors

L Brealey Author