Analytical Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125551601, 9780323143004

Analytical Chemistry

1st Edition

Authors: Clyde Frank
eBook ISBN: 9780323143004
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1979
Page Count: 720
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Description

Analytical Chemistry, Second Edition covers the fundamental principles of analytical chemistry. This edition is organized into 30 chapters that present various analytical chemistry methods. This book begins with a core of six chapters discussing the concepts basic to all of analytical chemistry. The fundamentals, concepts, applications, calculations, instrumentation, and chemical reactions of five major areas of analytical chemistry, namely, neutralization, potentiometry, spectroscopy, chromatography, and electrolysis methods, are emphasized in separate chapters. Other chapters are devoted to a discussion of precipitation and complexes in analytical chemistry. Principles and applications and the relationship of these reactions to the other areas are stressed. The remaining chapters of this edition are devoted to the laboratory. A chapter discusses the basic laboratory operations, with an emphasis on safety. This topic is followed by a series of experiments designed to reinforce the concepts developed in the chapters. This book is designed for introductory courses in analytical chemistry, especially those shorter courses servicing chemistry majors and life and health science majors.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter One

Introduction to Analytical Chemistry

To the Student

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry in Allied Areas

The Analytical Chemist and the Analyst

Chapter Two

Development of an Analytical Method

The Analytical Problem

Choosing an Analytical Method

Types of Analytical Methods

Methods of Analysis

Literature in Analytical Chemistry

Chapter Three

Stoichiometry

Introduction

Units

Concentration

Calculations

Standards

Questions

Problems

Chapter Four

Statistical Treatment of Analytical Data

Introduction

Definitions

Elimination of Data

Propagation of Errors

Questions

Problems

Chapter Five

Preliminary Operations in Quantitative Analysis

Introduction

Sampling

Drying

Weighing

Dissolving

Questions

Chapter Six

Introduction to Chemical Reactions in Analytical Chemistry

Scope

Completeness of Reaction

Equilibrium Concept

Reaction Rates

Equilibrium Constant

Application of the Equilibrium Concept

Equilibrium Condition: Fundamental Definition

Summary

Questions

Chapter Seven

Precipitation Methods

Introduction

Gravimetry

Formation of a Precipitate

Properties of Precipitates

Coprecipitation

Types of Precipitating Reagents

Solubility

Solubility Product

Typical Gravimetric Examples

Homogeneous Precipitation

Calculations

Questions

Problems

Chapter Eight

Neutralization in Analytical Chemistry

Introduction

Acid-Base Theories

Acid and Base Strength

Leveling Effect

pH

pH Scale

pH of Acid and Base Solutions

Buffers

Neutralization as a Volumetric Method

Polyfunctional Acids and Bases

Titration of Salts

Differential Titration

Primary Standards

End-Point Detection

Summary of Acid-Base Titration Curves

Applications

Calculations

Questions

Problems

Chapter Nine

Nonaqueous Acid-Base Titrations

Scope

Solvents

Equilibria in a Nonaqueous Solvent

Choosing a Solvent

Titrants

End-Point Detection

Applications

Indirect Acid-Base Methods

Calculations

Questions

Problems

Chapter Ten

Oxidation-Reduction Equilibria

Definitions

Electrochemical Cells

Cell Calculations

Nernst Equation

Equilibrium Constant

Measurement of Potential

Reference-Indicator Electrodes

Biological Systems

Questions

Problems

Chapter Eleven

Oxidation-Reduction Titrations

Introduction

Titration Curve

Differential Titrations

End-Point Detection

Questions

Problems

Chapter Twelve

Oxidizing and Reducing Agents as Titrants in Analytical Chemistry

Introduction

Oxidizing Titrants

Reducing Titrants

Adjustment of Oxidation State

Calculations

Questions

Problems

Chapter Thirteen

Ion-Selective Electrodes

Introduction

Electrodes for Hydronium Ion

Non-Half-Cell Ion-Selective Electrodes

Glass Membrane Electrode

Solid State and Precipitate Electrodes

Liquid-Liquid Electrode

Gas- and Enzyme-Sensing Electrodes

Calibration

Applications

Measurements with a pH Meter

Questions

Problems

Chapter Fourteen

Precipitation Titrations

Introduction

Titration Requirements

Titration Curve

Calculations

Questions

Problems

Chapter Fifteen

Complexes in Analytical Chemistry: Complexometric Titrations

Introduction

Classification of Ligands

Stability

Kinetics

Advantages and Practical Aspects of Coordination Compounds

Complexometric Titrations

Titrants

End-Point Detection

Applications

Questions

Problems

Chapter Sixteen

Introduction to Multiple Equilibrium Systems

Introduction

Effect of Experimental Variables in EDTA Titrations

Calculation of a Titration Curve

Other Examples

Questions

Problems

Chapter Seventeen

Fundamental Principles of Optical Spectroscopy

Introduction

Beer's Law: Law of Photometry

Instrumentation

Questions

Problems

Chapter Eighteen

Qualitative Analysis: Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared

Introduction

Electronic Spectra: Organic Compounds

Inorganic Spectra

Vibrational Spectra-Qualitative Identification

Questions

Problems

Chapter Nineteen

Quantitative Analysis in Absorption Spectroscopy

Introduction

Quantitative Analysis: Ultraviolet-Visible

Analysis of Organic Compounds

Inorganic Analysis

Multicomponent Analysis

Automation in Spectrophotometric Analysis

Quantitative Infrared

Photometric Titrations

Questions

Problems

Chapter Twenty

Spectroscopy of Atoms

Introduction

Atomic Emission

Atomic Absorption

Atomic Fluorescence

Questions

Problems

Chapter Twenty-One

Luminescence

Fluorescence

Phosphorescence

Chemiluminescence

Light Scattering

Questions

Problems

Chapter Twenty-Two

Separations: Introduction to Chromatography

Scope

Classification of Separation Methods

Chromatography

General Concepts

Some Fundamental Concepts

Summary

Questions

Chapter Twenty-Three

Column Methods

Introduction

Columns

Adsorption or Partition

Adsorption

Partition

Bonded Phases

Detection of Column Effluent

Liquid Chromatography Apparatus

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Questions

Chapter Twenty-Four

Gas Chromatography

Introduction

The Chromatogram and Its Interpretation

Instrumentation

Factors Affecting Separation

Qualitative Analysis

Quantitative Analysis

Applications

Questions

Problems

Chapter Twenty-Five

Sheet Methods

Introduction

Paper Chromatography

Thin-Layer Chromatography

Experimental Techniques

Applications

Questions

Chapter Twenty-Six

Ion Exchange

Introduction

Properties of Ion Exchange

Basis for Separations

Questions

Chapter Twenty-Seven

Solvent Extraction

Introduction

Distribution Law

Types of Inorganic Extraction Systems

Extraction Techniques and Variables

Summary

Questions

Chapter Twenty-Eight

Introduction to Electrochemistry

Introduction

The Electrolytic Cell

Electron Transfer

Mass Transport

Faraday's Laws

Coulometry

Questions

Problems

Chapter Twenty-Nine

Polarography

Introduction

Instrumentation

The Polarographic Wave

Precautions in Polarography

Applications of Polarography

Amperometric Titrations

Questions

Problems

Chapter Thirty

Experimental Techniques

Introduction

Mass, Weight, and Weighing Techniques

Volume (Volumetric Techniques)

Common Laboratory Operations

Graphs

Questions

Experiments

1. Calibration of a Buret: Practice with the Balance

2. The Importance of Sampling and Statistical Handling of Data

3. Gravimetric Determination of Sulfate

4. Gravimetric Determination of Chloride

5. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel: Determination of Nickel in a Nickel Ore

6. Determination of Acetic Acid in Vinegar

7. Determination of a KHP Unknown

8. Determination of Soda Ash (Na2CO3)

9. Determination of Total Salt

10. Determination of Ammonia by the Kjeldahl Method

11. Nonaqueous Titration of an Amine in Glacial Acetic Acid

12. Determination of Arsenic by Titration with Iodine

13. Determination of Oxalate by Titration with Potassium Permanganate

14. Iodometric Determination of Copper in Brass

15. Determination of Commercial Hydrogen Peroxide

16. Determination of Ferric Iron and Total Iron in Pharmaceutical Preparations

17. Potentiometric Titration of Iron(II) with Potassium Dichromate

18. Potentiometric Titration of Sulfanilamide

19. Potentiometric Titration of an Organic Acid; Determination of pKa and Formula Weight

20. Measurements with the Fluoride Electrode

21. Fajan's Method: Titration of Chloride with Silver

22. Determination of Magnesium and Calcium in Hard Water and Egg Shells

23. EDTA Titration of Zinc and Other Transition Metals

24. Spectrophotometric Determination of Manganese

25. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron with 1,10-Phenanthroline

26. Spectrophotometric Determination of Lead with Dithizone

27. Spectrophotometric Determination of Phosphorus in Egg Shells

28. The Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of a Permanganate and Dichromate Mixture

29. Determination of Glucose in Blood: A Study of the Variables

30. Spectrophotometric Determination of Aldehydes and Ketones

31. Determination of Sodium in Several Different Samples by Flame Photometry

32. Fluorimetric Determination of Quinine

33. Interpretation of Infrared Spectra

34. Separation of Methylene Blue and Fluorescein by Column Chromatography

35. Parameters Affecting the Separation of a Hydrocarbon Mixture

36. Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography

37. Separation of Vitamins by Thin-Layer Chromatography

38. Separation of a Minor Constituent in Presence of a Major Component

39. Electrogravimetric Determination of Copper

40. Polarographic Determination of Cadmium

41. Polarographic Determination of Riboflavin

Appendix I

Mathematical Operations

Appendix II

Solubility Product Constants

Appendix III

Ionization Constants of Weak Acids and Bases

Appendix IV

Reduction Potentials

Appendix V

Log Formation Constants for Metal Complexes

Appendix VI

Distribution Diagrams for Selected Compounds

Appendix VII

Four-Place Logarithms

Problem Answers

Index




Details

No. of pages:
720
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1979
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323143004

About the Author

Clyde Frank

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