Analytical Chemistry of Organic Halogen Compounds

Analytical Chemistry of Organic Halogen Compounds

International Series in Analytical Chemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Author: L. Mázor
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483160658

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Description

Analytical Chemistry of Organic Halogen Compounds presents the procedures applied in the analysis of organic halogen compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that discuss the methods involved in the production and application of organic halogen compounds and in overcoming contamination problems caused by these compounds. After briefly dealing with the preparation, characteristics, and reactions of organic halogen compounds, this book goes on discussing the fundamental concepts of methods for the detection of halogens in organic compounds, namely, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and fluorine. The following chapter describes the characteristic features, advantages, and disadvantages of ultramicro and submicro chemical methods. A chapter also examines the qualitative and quantitative studies of organic halogen compounds based on the thermal and chemical stability of these compounds. The concluding chapters discuss the interference or interfering effects of halogens and their elimination in the determination of other elements. A list of physical constants of organic halogen compounds of general pharmaceutical and industrial significance is provided. This book is an ideal source for analytical chemists and other workers who are interested in the theoretical bases of the methods.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter I Properties, Preparation and Reactions of the Halogens and of Organic Halogen Compounds

    I. The Properties of the Halogens

    1. Physical Properties

    2. Chemical Properties

    II. Main characteristics of Organic Halogen Compounds

    1. Fluorine Compounds

    2. Chlorine Compounds

    3. Bromine Compounds

    4. Iodine Compounds

    III. Preparation of Organic Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine Compounds

    1. Addition Reactions with Unsaturated Aliphatic Compounds

    2. Halogenation by Substitution

    IV. Preparation of Organic Fluorine Compounds

    1. Fluorination of Aliphatic Compounds

    2. Fluorination of Aromatic Compounds

    3. Fluorination of Heterocyclic Compounds

    V. Reactions of Organic Halogen Compounds

    1. Types of Reactions

    2. Reactivity of Halogen Compounds in Substitution Reactions

    3. Reactivity of Halogen Compounds in Elimination Reactions

    4. Behavior of Organic Halogen Compounds in Elimination Reactions

    5. Halogen Exchange Processes

    6. Reactions of Organic Fluorine Compounds

    Chapter II Methods for the Detection of Halogens in Organic Compounds

    I. General Concepts

    II. Decomposition Methods

    1. Alkali Metal Fusion

    2. Decomposition with a Mixture of Magnesium Metal and Potassium Carbonate

    3. Decomposition with Silver Permanganate

    4. Carius Decomposition

    III. Reactions Suitable for Non-selective Detection of Chloride, Bromide and Iodide Ions

    1. Beilstein Test

    2. Detection by Means of Halogen-Specific Gas Chromatographic Detectors

    IV. Reactions Suitable for Specific Detection of Halide Ions

    1. Detection of Chloride Ions

    2. Detection of Bromide Ions

    3. Detection of Iodide Ions

    4. Detection of Halide Ions in the Presence of One Another

    5. Detection of Fluoride Ions

    V. Reactions and Methods Suitable for Direct Detection of Organic Halogen Compounds

    VI. Analysis of Organic Halogen Compounds on the Basis of Their Derivatives

    VII. Instrumental Methods

    VIII. Reactions Suitable for Determination of the Position of the Halogen Atom in a Molecule

    References 82

    Chapter III Methods for the Determination of Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine in Organic Compounds

    I. Methods of Analysis

    1. Tools and Techniques in Gravimetric Microanalysis

    2. Tools and Techniques in Titrimetric Microanalysis

    3. Spectrophotometry Methods

    4. Other Methods

    II. Methods for the Determination of Chloride, Bromide and Iodide Ions

    1. Chloride Ions

    2. Bromide Ions

    3. Iodide Ions

    III. Methods for the Liberation of the Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine Content of Organic Compounds

    1. Hydrolysis of Halogens in Aqueous or Organic Solutions

    2. Decomposition of Organic Compounds with Acids or Oxidizing Acid Mixtures

    3. Decomposition by Solids in Melts

    4. Combustion Methods

    IV. Some Methods for the Determination of the Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine Content of Organic Compounds

    1. Determination of Chlorine and Bromine in Organic Compounds by Wet Decomposition

    2. Determination of the Chlorine Content of Polyvinyl Chloride and Other Polymers Containing Chlorine, by Wet Decomposition

    3. Oxidative Decomposition of Organic Halogen Compounds in the Parr Bomb, on the Semi-micro Scale

    4. Combustion of Organic Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine Compounds in a Fast Stream of Oxygen, in an Empty Tube

    5. Determination of Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine after Oxygen Flask Combustion on the Micro Scale

    References

    Chapter IV Analysis of Organic Fluorine Compounds

    I. Methods for the Determination of Fluoride Ions

    1. Gravimetric Methods

    2. Titrimetric Methods

    3. Colorimetric and Spectrophotometric Methods

    4. Other Instrumental Analytical Techniques

    II. Pretreatment of Organic Compounds before Determination of the Fluorine Content

    1. Decomposition by Aqueous or Alkaline Hydrolysis and by Alkali Metals

    2. Oxidative or Reductive Decomposition at High Temperatures

    3. Decomposition with Oxidizing Gases

    III. Methods Suitable for the Separation of Fluoride Ions from Other Substances, Including Interfering Ions

    IV. Detailed Descriptions of Some Methods Suitable for the Determination of Fluorine in Organic Compounds

    1. Semi-micro Determination of Fluoride Ions as Lead Chloride Fluoride after Fusion with Sodium or Potassium

    2. Micro Titration of Fluoride Ions with Thorium Nitrate (Methylthymol Blue Indicator)

    3. Determination of Fluorine, after Combustion in an Oxygen Atmosphere, by Potentiometric Titration

    4. Spectrophotometric Methods using Lanthanum-Alizarin Fluorine Blue

    References

    Chapter V Ultramicro Chemical Methods for the Determination of the Halogen Content of Organic Compounds

    I. General Review of the Methods

    1. Ultramicro Balances

    2. Apparatus for Titrimetric Analysis

    3. Reagents and Solutions

    4. Spectrophotometric and other Methods

    5. Decomposition Methods

    II. Determination Methods

    1. Chloride Ions

    2. Bromide Ions

    3. Iodide Ions

    4. Fluoride Ions

    III. Methods for the Ultramicro Determination of the Halogen Content of Organic Compounds

    1. Combustion of Organic Halogen Compounds by the Method Suggested by Belcher

    2. Determination of Chloride Ions

    3. Iodimetric Determination of Bromide Ions

    4. Determination of Iodine

    5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Fluoride Ions after Oxygen Flask Combustion

    References

    Chapter VI Qualitative and Quantitative Investigation of Organic Halogen Compounds Based on the Different Reactivities of the Halogens

    I. Qualitative Methods

    1. Reactions with Silver Nitrate in Aqueous Solution

    2. Reactions with Ethanolic Silver Nitrate Solution

    3. Reactions of Organic Halogen Compounds with Acetonic Sodium Iodide Solution

    II. Quantitative Methods

    References

    Chapter VII Interfering Effects of Halogens; Their Elimination in the Determination of Other Elements

    I. Determination of Carbon and Hydrogen

    II. Determination of Nitrogen

    III. Determination of Oxygen

    IV. Determination of Sulfur

    V. Determination of Other Elements

    References

    Chapter VIII Physical Constants of Organic Halogen Compounds of General Pharmaceutical and Industrial Importance

    Formula Index

    Subject Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 292
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483160658

About the Author

L. Mázor

About the Editors

R. Belcher

H. Freiser

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