Analysis of Triglycerides

Analysis of Triglycerides

1st Edition - January 28, 1972

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  • Author: Carter Litchfield
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323153522

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Analysis of Triglycerides is a 13-chapter text that covers the various types of analyses, the specific operating conditions, and experimental details necessary when dealing with certain types of triglyceride molecules and their derived diglycerides. After briefly providing an overview of the history and applications of triglycerides analysis, this book goes on describing the analytical techniques for triglyceride analysis, which are subdivided into sample preparation, molecular fractionation, and positional analysis. Considerable chapters are devoted to diglyceride characterization procedures. A chapter describes the various fatty acid distribution theories for estimating the composition of natural triglyceride mixtures. The final chapter outlines useful combinations of analytical techniques for obtaining maximum compositional information. This book is a comprehensive reference source for analytical and organic chemists and researchers, as well as for teachers and students who are interested in seeking more information on the subject.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    1. Introduction

    I. Triglyceride Molecules

    A. Nomenclature

    B. Complexity of Triglyceride Mixtures

    II. History of Triglyceride Analysis

    A. 1815-1955: Crystallization and Oxidation Techniques

    B. 1956-1972: Chromatographic and Enzymatic Techniques

    III. Applications of Triglyceride Analysis

    2. Extraction, Isolation, Measurement, and Fatty Acid Analysis

    I. Extraction of Lipids

    II. Isolation of Triglycerides

    A. Column Chromatography on Florisil

    B. Column Chromatography on Silicic Acid

    C. Thin-Layer Chromatography on Silicic Acid

    D. Other Methods

    III. Measurement of Total Triglyceride

    IV. Fatty Acid Analysis

    A. Methyl Ester Preparation

    B. Column

    C. Identification of Peaks

    D. Quantitation

    3. Preparation of Chemical Derivatives before Separation

    I. Reactions at Double Bonds

    A. Hydrogenation

    B. Permanganate Oxidation

    C. Ozonization

    D. Epoxidation

    E. Bromination

    F. Mercuration

    G. Other Reactions at Double Bonds

    II. Reactions at Ester Linkages

    A. Estolide Ester Cleavage

    B. Interesterification

    III. Reactions of Hydroxy, Epoxy, and Keto Groups

    A. Acetylation

    B. Trimethylsilyl Ethers

    C. Hydrazone Formation

    4. Silver Ion Adsorption Chromatography

    I. Methods

    A. Choice of Method

    B. Thin-Layer Chromatography

    C. Column Chromatography

    II. Applications

    A. Separation by Number of cis Double Bonds

    B. Isomer Separations

    C. Other Functional Groups

    D. Oxidized Triglycerides

    E. Derived Diglycerides

    5. Liquid-Liquid Partition Chromatography

    I. Methods

    A. Choice of Method

    B. Thin-Layer and Paper Chromatography

    C. Column Chromatography

    D. Countercurrent Distribution

    II. Applications

    A. Separation by Partition Number

    B. Separation by Unsaturation

    C. Oxidized Triglycerides

    D. Other Functional Groups and Derivatives

    E. Derived Diglycerides

    6. Gas-Liquid Chromatography

    I. Methods

    A. Apparatus

    B. Column

    C. Operating Conditions

    D. Quantitation

    II. Applications

    A. Separation by Carbon Number

    B. Separation by Unsaturation

    C. Separation of Isomers

    D. Hydroxy and Epoxy Triglycerides

    E. Oxidized Triglycerides

    F. Preparative Separations

    G. Radioisotope Detection

    H. Derived Diglycerides

    7. Fractional Crystallization

    I. Methods

    A. Solvent

    B. Procedure

    II. Applications

    A. Separation by Number of Saturated Acyl Groups

    B. Separation by Number of Double Bonds

    C. Oxidized Triglycerides

    D. Other Derivatives

    8. Other Separation Techniques

    I. Silicic Acid Adsorption Chromatography

    A. Methods

    B. Separation by Molecular Weight

    C. Separation by Unsaturation

    D. Triglyceride Positional Isomers

    E. Oxygenated Triglycerides

    F. Brominated Triglycerides

    G. Mercurated Triglycerides

    H. Derived Diglycerides

    II. Florisil Adsorption Chromatography

    III. Aluminum Oxide Adsorption Chromatography

    IV. Charcoal Adsorption Chromatography

    V. Paper Chromatography

    VI. Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    VII. Permeation Chromatography

    VIII. Thermal Gradient Chromatography

    IX. Distillation

    9. Partial Deacylation Reactions

    I. Chemical Deacylation Methods

    A. Grignard Reagents

    B. Other Reagents

    II. Enzymatic Deacylation Methods

    A. Pancreatic Lipase

    B. Milk Lipase

    C. Rhizopus arrhizus Lipase

    D. Geotrichum canaidum Lipase

    E. Other Lipases

    10. Sterospecific Analysis

    I. Methods

    A. sn-1,2(2,3)-Diglyceride Method of Brockerhoff

    B. sn-1,3-Diglyceride Method of Brockerhoff

    C. Method of Lands

    D. Choice of Method

    E. Deacylation of Triglycerides to Representative Diglycerides

    F. Phosphorylation of Diglycerides

    G. Hydrolysis of Phospholipid with Phospholipase A

    II. Applications

    A. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids

    B. Composition of Triglyceride Mixtures

    C. Composition of Derived Diglycerides

    11. Physical Properties

    I. Mass Spectrometry

    A. Pure Triglycerides

    B. Natural Triglyceride Mixtures

    C. Derived Diglycerides

    II. Melting Point

    III. Differential Cooling Curves

    IV. Infrared Spectroscopy

    V. X-Ray Diffraction

    VI. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    VII. Rotation of Polarized Light

    A. Triglycerides

    B. Derived Diglycerides

    VIII. Piezoelectric Effect

    IX. Other Physical Constants

    12. Distribution of Fatty Acids in Natural Triglyceride Mixtures

    I. Positional Distribution Patterns

    A. Plant Triglycerides

    B. Animal Triglycerides

    II. Triglyceride Composition Patterns

    A. 1-Random-2-Random-3-Random Hypothesis

    B. 1,3-Random-2-Random Hypothesis

    C. Other Fatty Acid Distribution Hypothesis

    D. Validity of Distribution Hypotheses

    III. Biosynthesis of Triglycerides

    13. Combining Methods for Detailed Analysis of Complex Triglyceride Mixtures

    I. Combining Triglyceride Analysis Techniques

    A. Separation Techniques

    B. Positional Analysis Techniques

    II. Use of Derived Diglycerides of Analysis for Unresolvable Triglyceride Mixtures

    III. Maximum Analysis of Complex Triglyceride Mixtures

    IV. Major Unsolved Problems of Triglyceride Analysis


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 374
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1972
  • Published: January 28, 1972
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323153522

About the Author

Carter Litchfield

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