Analysis of Triglycerides - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124519503, 9780323153522

Analysis of Triglycerides

1st Edition

Authors: Carter Litchfield
eBook ISBN: 9780323153522
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1972
Page Count: 374
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Description

Analysis of Triglycerides is a 13-chapter text that covers the various types of analyses, the specific operating conditions, and experimental details necessary when dealing with certain types of triglyceride molecules and their derived diglycerides. After briefly providing an overview of the history and applications of triglycerides analysis, this book goes on describing the analytical techniques for triglyceride analysis, which are subdivided into sample preparation, molecular fractionation, and positional analysis. Considerable chapters are devoted to diglyceride characterization procedures. A chapter describes the various fatty acid distribution theories for estimating the composition of natural triglyceride mixtures. The final chapter outlines useful combinations of analytical techniques for obtaining maximum compositional information. This book is a comprehensive reference source for analytical and organic chemists and researchers, as well as for teachers and students who are interested in seeking more information on the subject.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

1. Introduction

I. Triglyceride Molecules

A. Nomenclature

B. Complexity of Triglyceride Mixtures

II. History of Triglyceride Analysis

A. 1815-1955: Crystallization and Oxidation Techniques

B. 1956-1972: Chromatographic and Enzymatic Techniques

III. Applications of Triglyceride Analysis

2. Extraction, Isolation, Measurement, and Fatty Acid Analysis

I. Extraction of Lipids

II. Isolation of Triglycerides

A. Column Chromatography on Florisil

B. Column Chromatography on Silicic Acid

C. Thin-Layer Chromatography on Silicic Acid

D. Other Methods

III. Measurement of Total Triglyceride

IV. Fatty Acid Analysis

A. Methyl Ester Preparation

B. Column

C. Identification of Peaks

D. Quantitation

3. Preparation of Chemical Derivatives before Separation

I. Reactions at Double Bonds

A. Hydrogenation

B. Permanganate Oxidation

C. Ozonization

D. Epoxidation

E. Bromination

F. Mercuration

G. Other Reactions at Double Bonds

II. Reactions at Ester Linkages

A. Estolide Ester Cleavage

B. Interesterification

III. Reactions of Hydroxy, Epoxy, and Keto Groups

A. Acetylation

B. Trimethylsilyl Ethers

C. Hydrazone Formation

4. Silver Ion Adsorption Chromatography

I. Methods

A. Choice of Method

B. Thin-Layer Chromatography

C. Column Chromatography

II. Applications

A. Separation by Number of cis Double Bonds

B. Isomer Separations

C. Other Functional Groups

D. Oxidized Triglycerides

E. Derived Diglycerides

5. Liquid-Liquid Partition Chromatography

I. Methods

A. Choice of Method

B. Thin-Layer and Paper Chromatography

C. Column Chromatography

D. Countercurrent Distribution

II. Applications

A. Separation by Partition Number

B. Separation by Unsaturation

C. Oxidized Triglycerides

D. Other Functional Groups and Derivatives

E. Derived Diglycerides

6. Gas-Liquid Chromatography

I. Methods

A. Apparatus

B. Column

C. Operating Conditions

D. Quantitation

II. Applications

A. Separation by Carbon Number

B. Separation by Unsaturation

C. Separation of Isomers

D. Hydroxy and Epoxy Triglycerides

E. Oxidized Triglycerides

F. Preparative Separations

G. Radioisotope Detection

H. Derived Diglycerides

7. Fractional Crystallization

I. Methods

A. Solvent

B. Procedure

II. Applications

A. Separation by Number of Saturated Acyl Groups

B. Separation by Number of Double Bonds

C. Oxidized Triglycerides

D. Other Derivatives

8. Other Separation Techniques

I. Silicic Acid Adsorption Chromatography

A. Methods

B. Separation by Molecular Weight

C. Separation by Unsaturation

D. Triglyceride Positional Isomers

E. Oxygenated Triglycerides

F. Brominated Triglycerides

G. Mercurated Triglycerides

H. Derived Diglycerides

II. Florisil Adsorption Chromatography

III. Aluminum Oxide Adsorption Chromatography

IV. Charcoal Adsorption Chromatography

V. Paper Chromatography

VI. Ion-Exchange Chromatography

VII. Permeation Chromatography

VIII. Thermal Gradient Chromatography

IX. Distillation

9. Partial Deacylation Reactions

I. Chemical Deacylation Methods

A. Grignard Reagents

B. Other Reagents

II. Enzymatic Deacylation Methods

A. Pancreatic Lipase

B. Milk Lipase

C. Rhizopus arrhizus Lipase

D. Geotrichum canaidum Lipase

E. Other Lipases

10. Sterospecific Analysis

I. Methods

A. sn-1,2(2,3)-Diglyceride Method of Brockerhoff

B. sn-1,3-Diglyceride Method of Brockerhoff

C. Method of Lands

D. Choice of Method

E. Deacylation of Triglycerides to Representative Diglycerides

F. Phosphorylation of Diglycerides

G. Hydrolysis of Phospholipid with Phospholipase A

II. Applications

A. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids

B. Composition of Triglyceride Mixtures

C. Composition of Derived Diglycerides

11. Physical Properties

I. Mass Spectrometry

A. Pure Triglycerides

B. Natural Triglyceride Mixtures

C. Derived Diglycerides

II. Melting Point

III. Differential Cooling Curves

IV. Infrared Spectroscopy

V. X-Ray Diffraction

VI. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

VII. Rotation of Polarized Light

A. Triglycerides

B. Derived Diglycerides

VIII. Piezoelectric Effect

IX. Other Physical Constants

12. Distribution of Fatty Acids in Natural Triglyceride Mixtures

I. Positional Distribution Patterns

A. Plant Triglycerides

B. Animal Triglycerides

II. Triglyceride Composition Patterns

A. 1-Random-2-Random-3-Random Hypothesis

B. 1,3-Random-2-Random Hypothesis

C. Other Fatty Acid Distribution Hypothesis

D. Validity of Distribution Hypotheses

III. Biosynthesis of Triglycerides

13. Combining Methods for Detailed Analysis of Complex Triglyceride Mixtures

I. Combining Triglyceride Analysis Techniques

A. Separation Techniques

B. Positional Analysis Techniques

II. Use of Derived Diglycerides of Analysis for Unresolvable Triglyceride Mixtures

III. Maximum Analysis of Complex Triglyceride Mixtures

IV. Major Unsolved Problems of Triglyceride Analysis

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
374
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323153522

About the Author

Carter Litchfield