Analysis of Geophysical Potential Fields, Volume 5

1st Edition

A Digital Signal Processing Approach

Authors: P.S. Naidu M.P. Mathew
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444828019
eBook ISBN: 9780080527123
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 19th June 1998
Page Count: 297
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Table of Contents

Preface. Chapter 1. Geophysical Potential Fields. Potential field surveys for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration. Brief description of G&M surveys. Information content in potential fields. Role of digital signal processing (dsp). Digital filtering. Parameter estimation. Inverse filtering. Spectrum analysis. Image processing. Some reservations. A comparison with seismic signal processing. Prologue. Notation. Conventions. References. Chapter 2. Potential Field Signals and Models. Potential field in source free space. Fourier transform. Potential field. Poisson relation. Hilbert transform. Singularities of potential field. Potential field in source filled space. Gravity potential. Magnetic potential. 2D source models. Line source. Cylinder with polygonal cross-section. Dyke. Fault. Singularities. 3D source models. Potential field in frequency domain. Variable density/magnetization model. Uniform vertical prism. Singularities. Prism with polygonal cross-section. Stochastic models I: random interface. Stochastic field. Random interface. Magnetic field. Prism model. Layered strata. Stochastic model II: random medium. Thin layer. Thick layer. Half space. Undulating layer with random density or magnetization. Relation between gravity and magnetic fields. References. Chapter 3. Power Spectrum and its Applications. Introduction. Spectrum of random fields. Random functions (2D). Autocorrelation and cross-correlation. Spectrum and cross-spectrum. Radial and angular spectrum. Coherence. Transfer function. Discrete potential fields. Sampling theorem. Folding of spectrum and aliasing error. Generalized sampling. Quantization errors. Estimation of power spectrum. Discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Fast Fourier transform (FFT). 2D discrete Fourier transform. Properties of dft coeffficients. Statistical properties of dft coefficients. Estimation 2D spectrum. Bias and variance. Estimation of coherence. Spectral windows. Depth esti


When some useful information is hidden behind a mass of unwanted information we often resort to information processing used in its broad sense or specifically to signal processing when the useful information is a waveform. In geophysical surveys, in particular in aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, from the measured field it is often difficult to say much about any one specific target unless it is close to the surface and well isolated from the rest. The digital signal processing approach would enable us to bring out the underlying model of the source, that is, the geological structure. Some of the tools of dsp such as digital filtering, spectrum estimation, inversion, etc., have found extensive applications in aeromagnetic and gravity map analysis. There are other emerging applications of dsp in the area of inverse filtering, three dimensional visualization, etc.

The purpose of this book is to bring numerous tools of dsp to the geophysical community, in particular, to those who are entering the geophysical profession. Also the practicing geophysicists, involved in the aeromagnetic and gravity data analysis, using the commercially available software packages, will find this book useful in answering their questions on "why and how?". It is hoped that such a background would enable the practising geophysicists to appreciate the prospects and limitations of the dsp in extracting useful information from the potential field maps. The topics covered are: potential field signals and models, digital filtering in two dimensions, spectrum estimation and application, parameter estimation with error bounds.


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© Elsevier Science 1998
Elsevier Science
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About the Authors

P.S. Naidu Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept of ECE, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India

M.P. Mathew Author

Affiliations and Expertise

2 Church Street, Geological Survey of India, Bangalore 560001, India