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Anaerobic Infections in Humans - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122567452, 9780323142120

Anaerobic Infections in Humans

1st Edition

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Editor: Sydney Finegold
eBook ISBN: 9780323142120
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1989
Page Count: 876
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Anaerobic Infections in Humans focuses on the human diseases caused by anaerobic bacteria. This book acknowledges the depth and breadth of the role of anaerobes in diseases of humans, and provides comprehensive reviews by internationally recognized authorities on the various disease states. The book begins with the classification and taxonomy of anaerobes and the laboratory diagnosis and therapy of anaerobic infections in humans. Infection of different body parts are discussed separately in each chapter. The book also looks into the in vitro susceptibility data for anaerobic bacteria and the mechanisms of resistance and resistance transfer in anaerobic bacteria.

Table of Contents



1. History

I. Introduction

II. Infections due to Clostridia

III. Nonclostridial Anaerobic Infections


2. Classification and Taxonomy of Anaerobes

I. What Is an Anaerobe?

II. Problems in Classification and Characterization

III. Classification of Anaerobes


3. Anaerobes as Normal Flora

I. Introduction

II. Skin

III. Nose and Pharynx

IV. Oral Cavity

V. Alimentary Tract

VI. Genitourinary Tract


4. Effect of Antimicrobials on Human Flora

I. Introduction

II. Impact of B-Lactam Antibiotics on Oropharyngeal and Intestinal Microflora

III. Impact of Macrolides on Oropharyngeal and Intestinal Microflora

IV. Impact of Tetracyclines on Oropharyngeal and Intestinal Microflora

V. Impact of Nitroimidazoles on Oropharyngeal and Intestinal Microflora

VI. Impact of Quinolones on Oropharyngeal and Intestinal Microflora

VII. Impact of Clindamycin on Oropharyngeal and Intestinal Microflora


5. Role of Bacterial Virulence Factors in Pathogenesis of Anaerobic Infections

I. Introduction

II. Pathogenesis

III. Animal Models and T Cells in Abscess Formation


6. Host Defense Mechanisms against Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Direct Killing of Anaerobes by Serum

III. Activation of Complement by Anaerobes

IV. Chemotaxis of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

V. Phagocytosis and Killing of Anaerobes by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

VI. Contribution of Antibodies and Complement to Opsonization of Anaerobes

VII. Effects of Bacterial Surface Structures on Phagocytosis

VIII. Contribution of Cell-Mediated Immunity to Resistance against Anaerobes

IX. Impairment of Host Defenses by Anaerobes

X. Summary


7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Anaerobic Infections in Humans

I. Introduction

II. Selection, Collection, and Transport

III. Direct Examination and Processing


8. General Aspects of Anaerobic Infection

I. Incidence of Anaerobic Infections

II. Significance of Anaerobic Isolates and Specific Anaerobes

III. Clues to the Presence of Anaerobic Infection


9. Central Nervous System Infections

I. Brain Abscess

II. Bacterial Meningitis

III. Subdural Empyema

IV. Cerebral Epidural Abscess

V. Spinal Epidural Abscess

VI. Septic Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis


10. Eye Infections

I. Introduction

II. Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis

III. Canaliculitis

IV. Dacryocystitis

V. Conjunctivitis

VI. Keratitis

VII. Endophthalmitis


11. Oral and Dental Infections

I. Introduction

II. Periodontal Infection

III. Endodontic Infection

IV. Pediatric Infection

V. Complications from Orofacial Infection

VI. Antibiotics

VII. Osteomyelitis

VIII. Salivary Gland Infection

IX. Orofacial Infection and Chemotherapy

X. Specimen Collection and Processing

XI. Conclusion


12. Ear, Nose, Throat, and Head and Neck Infections

I. Historical Aspects

II. Oral Flora in Health and Disease

III. Anatomic Factors

IV. Distinctive Pathogens

V. Ear Infections

VI. Infections of Sinuses

VII. Oropharyngeal Infections

VIII. Odontogenic Infections

IX. Neck Space Infections

X. Infections Related to Trauma and Surgery

XI. Necrotizing and Gas-Producing Infections

XII. Miscellaneous Infections

XIII. Complications


13. Anaerobic Bacteremia and Cardiovascular Infections

I. Anaerobic Bacteremia

II. Infective Endocarditis

III. Pericarditis

IV. Myocardial Infection

V. Mycotic Aneurysm

VI. Infected Vascular Grafts

VII. Suppurative Thrombophlebitis


14. Respiratory Tract and Other Thoracic Infections

I. Introduction

II. Pulmonary Infections

III. Treatment and Prognosis


15. Biliary Tract and Hepatic Infections

I. Biliary Tract Infections

II. Pyogenic Liver Abscess


16. Intraperitoneal Infections

I. Introduction

II. Applied Anatomy and Physiology

III. Secondary Peritonitis

IV. Intraperitoneal Abscess

V. Therapy and Prognosis of Secondary Peritonitis and Intraperitoneal Abscess

VI. Miscellaneous Conditions Complicated by Intraperitoneal Anaerobic Infection


17. Retroperitoneal Infections

I. Introduction

II. Incidence and Epidemiology

III. Microbiology

IV. Pathogenesis

V. Anatomy

VI. Clinical Features

VII. Laboratory and Radiologic Features

VIII. Summary


18. Anaerobic Infections of the Urinary Tract

I. Introduction

II. Pathogenesis and Predisposing Factors

III. Specific Sites of Infection

IV. Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Actinomyces and Arachnia


19. Female Genital Tract Infections

I. Introduction

II. Microbiology

III. Pathogenic Mechanisms

IV. Clinical Manifestations

V. Diagnostic Approaches

VI. Therapy and Prevention


20. Bite Infections

I. Introduction

II. Dog Bites

III. Other Animal Bites

IV. Human Bites

V. Summary


21. Foot Infections

I. Introduction

II. Predisposing Factors and Pathogenesis

III. Microbiology

IV. Clinical Manifestations

V. Differential Diagnosis

VI. Diagnostic Procedures

VII. Complications of Disease

VIII. Therapy and Prognosis

IX. Prevention


22. Other Infections of Skin, Soft Tissue, and Muscle

I. Infections That Involve Skin or Skin Structures Primarily

II. Infections Involving Subcutaneous Tissue with or without Skin Involvement

III. Infections That Involve Fascia Primarily

IV. Infections Involving Muscle Primarily

V. Evaluation of the Patient with Gas in a Wound


23. Bone and Joint Infections

I. Anaerobic Osteomyelitis

II. Anaerobic Joint Infection


24. Actinomycosis

I. Introduction

II. Predisposing Factors and Pathogenesis

III. Pathology

IV. Microbiology

V. Clinical Manifestations

VI. Differential Diagnosis

VII. Diagnosis

VIII. Complications

IX. Therapy and Prognosis


25. Pediatric Infections

I. Introduction

II. Neonatal Infections

III. Infection in Childhood

IV. Conclusions


26. Miscellaneous Anaerobic Infections

I. Introduction

II. Microbiology

III. Clinical Manifestations

IV. Miscellaneous Infections


27. Botulism in Adults

I. Pathogenesis

II. Epidemiology

III. Clinical Manifestations

IV. Diagnosis

V. Therapy

VI. Preventive Measures


28. Infant Botulism

I. Definition

II. Infectious Agent

III. Pathogenesis

IV. Epidemiology

V. Clinical Aspects

VI. Animal Models

VII. Prevention


29. Tetanus

I. Introduction

II. Incidence and Epidemiology

III. Etiology

IV. Immunochemistry

V. Pathogenesis

VI. Prophylaxis

VII. Clinical Picture

VIII. Differential Diagnosis

IX. Treatment

X. Complications

XI Professional Liability

XII. Cost

XIII. The Future


30. Clostridium perfringens Food Poisoning

I. Introduction

II. Epidemiology

III. Microbiology

IV. Pathogenesis

V. Clinical Manifestations and Differential Diagnosis

VI. Diagnosis

VII. Treatment and Prognosis

VIII. Prevention

IX. Public Health Issues


31. Enteritis Necroticans

I. Introduction

II. Epidemiology

III. Pathology

IV. Etiology and Pathogenesis

V. Clinical Features

VI. Radiological Examination

VII. Treatment

VIII. Prevention

IX. Summary


32. Antimicrobial Agent-Associated Diarrhea and Colitis

I. Introduction

II. Epidemiology

III. Predisposing Factors and Pathogenesis

IV. Clinical Manifestations

V. Diagnosis

VI. Colonic Pathology

VII. Therapy and Prognosis


33. Role of Anaerobic Bacteria in Other Bowel Pathology

I. Introduction

II. Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth

III. Jejunoileal Bypass Enteropathy

IV. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

V. Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

VI. Pneumatosis Cystoides Intestinalis

VII. Miscellaneous Gastrointestinal Conditions and Pathogens


34. Impact of Anaerobic Bowel Flora on Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Compounds

I. Introduction

II. Metabolic Activities of Gastrointestinal Microflora

III. Additional Bacterial Reactions of Biological Significance

IV. Role of Intestinal Flora in Formation of Tumor Promoters, Mutagens, and Carcinogens

V. Fecal Mutagens


35. Susceptibility Testing Procedures

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Miscellaneous Problems in Interpretation of Susceptibility Tests

IV. Summary


36. Antimicrobic Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Large-Scale Surveys of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Anaerobes

III. Activity of Lincosamides and Macrolides against Anaerobes

IV. Activity of Nitroimidazoles, Including Metronidazole

V. Activity of Newer Penicillin Derivatives against Anaerobes

VI. Usefulness of Inhibitors of ß-Lactamase

VII. Activity of Newer ß-Lactam Antimicrobials

VIII. Activity of Carbapenems

IX. 4-Quinolones

X. Miscellaneous Antimicrobics: Use of Combinations

XI. Susceptibility Patterns of Some Specific Anaerobes

XII. Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobics against Anaerobes


37. Mechanisms of Resistance and Resistance Transfer in Anaerobic Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Bacteroides

III. Clostridium

IV. Conclusion


38. Prophylaxis in the Surgical Patient

I. Basic Considerations of Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis

II. Factors Known to Prevent Infection

III. Categories of Surgical Wounds

IV. Categories of Antibiotic Prophylaxis


39. Therapy of Anaerobic Infections

I. General

II. Surgical Therapy and Nonsurgical Drainage

III. Antimicrobial Therapy




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© Academic Press 1989
28th April 1989
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Sydney Finegold

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