An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

2nd Edition - December 3, 2013

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  • Authors: Michael Ojovan, William Lee
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080993935

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Drawing on the authors’ extensive experience in the processing and disposal of waste, An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation, Second Edition examines the gamut of nuclear waste issues from the natural level of radionuclides in the environment to geological disposal of waste-forms and their long-term behavior. It covers all-important aspects of processing and immobilization, including nuclear decay, regulations, new technologies and methods. Significant focus is given to the analysis of the various matrices used, especially cement and glass, with further discussion of other matrices such as bitumen. The final chapter concentrates on the performance assessment of immobilizing materials and safety of disposal, providing a full range of the resources needed to understand and correctly immobilize nuclear waste.

Key Features

  • The fully revised second edition focuses on core technologies and has an integrated approach to immobilization and hazards
  • Each chapter focuses on a different matrix used in nuclear waste immobilization: cement, bitumen, glass and new materials
  • Keeps the most important issues surrounding nuclear waste - such as treatment schemes and technologies and disposal - at the forefront


Materials, environmental and energy scientists and researchers. Anyone researching or developing materials for nuclear waste immobilization

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface to the Second Edition

    1. Introduction to Immobilisation

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 The Importance of Waste

    1.3 Radioactive Waste

    1.4 Recycling

    1.5 Waste Minimisation

    1.6 Processing and Immobilisation

    1.7 Time Frames


    2. Nuclear Decay

    2.1 Nuclear Matter

    2.2 Radioactive Decay

    2.3 Decay Law

    2.4 Radioactive Equilibrium

    2.5 Activity

    2.6 Alpha Decay

    2.7 Beta Decay

    2.8 Gamma Decay

    2.9 Spontaneous Fission

    2.10 Radionuclide Characteristics


    3. Contaminants and Hazards

    3.1 Elemental Abundance

    3.2 Migration and Redistribution

    3.3 Potential Hazard of Nuclear Waste

    3.4 Relative Hazards

    3.5 Importance of Wasteform: Real Hazard Concept

    3.6 Wasteform Durability and Hazard Diminishing


    4. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides

    4.1 NORM and TENORM

    4.2 Primordial Radionuclides

    4.3 Use of Primordial Radionuclides for Dating

    4.4 Natural Nuclear Reactors

    4.5 Cosmogenic Radionuclides

    4.6 Natural Radionuclides in Igneous Rocks

    4.7 Natural Radionuclides in Sedimentary Rocks and Soils

    4.8 Natural Radionuclides in Sea Water

    4.9 Radon Emissions

    4.10 Natural Radionuclides in the Human Body


    5. Background Radiation

    5.1 Radiation is Natural

    5.2 Dose Units

    5.3 Biological Consequences of Irradiation

    5.4 Background Radiation


    6. Nuclear Waste Regulations

    6.1 Regulatory Organisations

    6.2 Protection Philosophies

    6.3 Regulation of Radioactive Materials and Sources

    6.4 Exemption Criteria and Levels

    6.5 Clearance of Materials from Regulatory Control – Moderate Amounts

    6.6 Clearance of Materials from Regulatory Control – Bulk Amounts

    6.7 Double Standards

    6.8 Dose Limits

    6.9 Control of Radiation Hazards

    6.10 Nuclear Waste Classification

    6.11 IAEA Classification Scheme

    6.12 Examples of Waste Classification



    7. Principles of Nuclear Waste Management

    7.1 International Consensus

    7.2 Objective of Radioactive Waste Management

    7.3 Fundamental Principles

    7.4 Comments on the Fundamental Principles

    7.5 Fundamental Safety Principles

    7.6 Ethical Principles

    7.7 Joint Convention

    7.8 International Cooperation



    8. Nuclear Waste Types and Sources

    8.1 Sources of Nuclear Waste

    8.2 Front-End and Operational NFC Waste

    8.3 Back-End Open NFC Waste

    8.4 Back-End Closed NFC Waste

    8.5 Back-End NFC Decommissioning Waste

    8.6 Non-NFC Wastes

    8.7 Accidental Wastes

    8.8 Global Inventory



    9. Short-Lived Waste Radionuclides

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Tritium

    9.3 Cobalt-60

    9.4 Strontium-90

    9.5 Cesium-137


    10. Long-Lived Waste Radionuclides

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Carbon-14

    10.3 Technetium-99

    10.4 Iodine-129

    10.5 Plutonium

    10.6 Neptunium-237

    10.7 Nuclear Criticality



    11. Waste Processing Schemes

    11.1 Management Roadmap

    11.2 Waste Life Cycle

    11.3 Pre-disposal

    11.4 Disposal

    11.5 Categorisation for Processing

    11.6 Selection of Processing Technologies

    11.7 Wasteforms

    11.8 Waste Packages

    11.9 Processing of NORM waste



    12. Characterisation of Radioactive Waste

    12.1 Approaches to Waste Characterisation

    12.2 Characterisation of Radiation Fields

    12.3 Sampling and Characterisation of Surface Contamination

    12.4 Waste Characterisation Techniques

    12.5 Characterisation of Waste Packages and Wasteforms

    12.6 Characterisation of Environment and Personnel


    13. Pre-treatment of Radioactive Wastes

    13.1 Pre-treatment Objectives

    13.2 Collection and Segregation

    13.3 Adjustment

    13.4 Size Reduction

    13.5 Packaging

    13.6 Decontamination


    14. Treatment of Radioactive Wastes

    14.1 Treatment Objectives

    14.2 Treatment of Aqueous Wastes

    14.3 Treatment of Organic Liquid Wastes

    14.4 Treatment of Solid Wastes

    14.5 Treatment of Gaseous and Airborne Effluents

    14.6 Partitioning and Transmutation



    15. Immobilisation of Radioactive Waste in Cement

    15.1 Cementitious Wasteforms

    15.2 Hydraulic Cements

    15.3 Cement Hydration

    15.4 Phase Composition of Hydrated Cements

    15.5 Cementation of Radioactive Wastes

    15.6 Modified and Composite Cement Systems

    15.7 Alternative Cementitious Systems

    15.8 Cementation Technology

    15.9 Acceptance Criteria



    16. Immobilisation of Radioactive Waste in Bitumen

    16.1 Bituminisation

    16.2 Composition and Properties of Bitumen

    16.3 Bituminous Materials for Waste Immobilisation

    16.4 Waste Loading

    16.5 Bituminisation Technique

    16.6 Acceptance Criteria

    16.7 Bitumen Versus Cement


    17. Immobilisation of Radioactive Waste in Glass

    17.1 Glasses and the Vitreous State

    17.2 Glasses for Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

    17.3 Immobilisation Mechanisms

    17.4 Borosilicate Glasses

    17.5 Cations in Silicate Glasses

    17.6 Degree of Polymerisation

    17.7 Role of Boron Oxide

    17.8 Role of Intermediates and Modifiers

    17.9 Difficult Elements

    17.10 Selection Rules for a Nuclear Wasteform Silicate Glass

    17.11 Phosphate Glasses

    17.12 Glass Composite Materials

    17.13 Vitrification Technology

    17.14 Development of Vitrification Technologies

    17.15 Calcination Processes

    17.16 Cold Crucible Melters

    17.17 In Situ Vitrification

    17.18 Radionuclide Volatility

    17.19 Acceptance Criteria



    18. New Immobilising Hosts and Technologies

    18.1 New Approaches

    18.2 Crystalline Wasteforms

    18.3 Radiation Damage

    18.4 Actinide-Hosting Ceramics

    18.5 Polyphase Crystalline Wasteforms: Synroc

    18.6 Polyphase Wasteforms: Glass–Crystalline Composites

    18.7 New Technological Approaches

    18.8 Metal Matrix Immobilisation



    19. Transport and Storage of Radioactive Waste

    19.1 Transportation

    19.2 Storage

    19.3 SNF Storage

    19.4 Storage Inventory


    20. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    20.1 Disposal/Storage Concepts

    20.2 Retention Times

    20.3 Multi-Barrier Concept

    20.4 Disposal/Storage Options

    20.5 Role of the EBS

    20.6 Importance of NGB

    20.7 Transport of Radionuclides

    20.8 Disposal Experience

    20.9 Acceptance Criteria


    21. Safety and Performance Assessments

    21.1 Safety Case

    21.2 Safety Requirements

    21.3 Safety Assessment Report

    21.4 Safety Assessment Process

    21.5 Cementitious Materials Performance

    21.6 Bitumen Performance

    21.7 Glass Performance

    21.8 Glass Corrosion Mechanisms

    21.9 Glass Performance in Confined Conditions (Geological Repository)

    21.10 Radiation Effects

    21.11 Research Laboratories

    21.12 Conclusion



Product details

  • No. of pages: 376
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: December 3, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080993935

About the Authors

Michael Ojovan

Michael I. Ojovan has been Nuclear Engineer of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), visiting Professor of Imperial College London, Associate Reader in Materials Science and Waste Immobilisation of the University of Sheffield, UK, and Leading Scientist of Radiochemistry Department of Lomonosov Moscow State University. M. Ojovan is Editorial Board Member of scientific journals: “Materials Degradation” (Nature Partner Journal), “International Journal of Corrosion”, “Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations”, “Journal of Nuclear Materials”, and Associate Editor of journal “Innovations in Corrosion and Materials Science”. He has published 12 monographs including the “Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies” by Woodhead and three editions of “An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation” by Elsevier – 2005, 2013 and 2019. He has founded and led the IAEA International Predisposal Network (IPN) and the IAEA International Project on Irradiated Graphite Processing (GRAPA). M. Ojovan is known for the connectivity-percolation theory of glass transition, Sheffield model (two-exponential equation) of viscosity of glasses and melts, condensed Rydberg matter, metallic and glass-composite materials for nuclear waste immobilisation, and self-sinking capsules to investigate Earth’ deep interior.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, UK

William Lee

Professor Lee has been Co-Director of the Institute of Security Science and Technology (ISST), Chair in Ceramic Science and Engineering, and President of the American Ceramic Society. Previous positions at Imperial include Director of the Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Director of the Centre for Doctoral Training in Nuclear Energy (with Cambridge and The Open Universities), and Director of the Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics. He is a member of the Government advisory committee The Nuclear Innovation and Research Advisory Board (NIRAB), the Leverhulme Trust Panel of Advisors, the Royal Academy of Engineering International Activities Committee, and the Scientific and Environmental Advisory Board Tokamak Energy Ltd. He was from Jan 2006 to Sept 2010 Head of the Department of Materials. Bill was Deputy Chair of the Government advisory Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM) from 2007-2013, has acted as special advisor nuclear to the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee (2013) and is an IAEA Technical Expert.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials, Imperial College London, UK

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