An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080444628, 9780080455716

An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

1st Edition

Authors: Michael Ojovan Michael Ojovan William Lee William Lee
eBook ISBN: 9780080455716
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080444628
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 19th September 2005
Page Count: 250
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Safety and environmental impact is of uppermost concern when dealing with the movement and storage of nuclear waste. The 20 chapters in 'An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation' cover all important aspects of immobilisation, from nuclear decay, to regulations, to new technologies and methods. Significant focus is given to the analysis of the various matrices used in transport: cement, bitumen and glass, with the greatest attention being given to glass. The last chapter concentrates on the performance assessment of each matrix, and on new developments of ceramics and glass composite materials, thermochemical methods and in-situ metal matrix immobilisation. The book thoroughly covers all issues surrounding nuclear waste: from where to locate nuclear waste in the environment, through nuclear waste generation and sources, treatment schemes and technologies, immobilisation technologies and waste forms, disposal and long term behaviour. Particular attention is paid to internationally approved and worldwide-applied approaches and technologies.

Key Features

  • Each chapter focuses on a different matrix used in nuclear waste immobilisation: Cement, bitumen, glass and new materials.
  • Keeps the most important issues surrounding nuclear waste – such as treatment schemes and technologies, and disposal - at the forefront.


Materials, environmental and energy scientists and researchers. Anyone researching or developing materials for nuclear waste immobilisation.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to immobilisation
<BR id=""CRLF"">1.1 Introduction<BR id=""CRLF"">1.2 The importance of waste <BR id=""CRLF"">1.3 Radioactive waste<BR id=""CRLF"">1.4 Recycling<BR id=""CRLF"">1.5 Waste minimisation <BR id=""CRLF"">1.6 Immobilisation<BR id=""CRLF"">1.7 Time frames<BR id=""CRLF"">1.8 Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">2. Nuclear decay
<BR id=""CRLF"">2.1. Nuclear decay<BR id=""CRLF"">2.2. Decay law<BR id=""CRLF"">2.3. Radioactive equilibrium <BR id=""CRLF"">2.4. Activity<BR id=""CRLF"">2.5. Alpha decay <BR id=""CRLF"">2.6. Beta decay <BR id=""CRLF"">2.7. Gamma decay <BR id=""CRLF"">2.8. Spontaneous fission <BR id=""CRLF"">2.9. Radionuclide characteristics <BR id=""CRLF"">2.10. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">3. Contaminants and hazards
<BR id=""CRLF"">3.1. Elemental abundance<BR id=""CRLF"">3.2. Migration and redistribution <BR id=""CRLF"">3.3. Hazard potential <BR id=""CRLF"">3.4. Relative hazard <BR id=""CRLF"">3.5. Real hazard concept <BR id=""CRLF"">3.6. Form factors that diminish hazard <BR id=""CRLF"">3.7. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">4. Heavy metals
<BR id=""CRLF"">4.1. Metallic contaminants<BR id=""CRLF"">4.2. Biogeochemical cycle<BR id=""CRLF"">4.3. Heavy metals<BR id=""CRLF"">4.4. Heavy metals in living species<BR id=""CRLF"">4.5. Lead<BR id=""CRLF"">4.6. Mercury<BR id=""CRLF"">4.7. Cadmium <BR id=""CRLF"">4.8. Arsenic<BR id=""CRLF"">4.9. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">5. Naturally occurring radionuclides
<BR id=""CRLF"">5.1. NORM and TENORM<BR id=""CRLF"">5.2. Primordial radionuclides <BR id=""CRLF"">5.3. Cosmogenic radionuclides <BR id=""CRLF"">5.4. Natural radionuclides in igneous rocks<BR id=""CRLF"">5.5. Natural radionuclides in sedimentary rocks and soils <BR id=""CRLF"">5.6. Natural radionuclides in sea water<BR id=""CRLF"">5.7. Radon emissions<BR id=""CRLF"">5.8. Natural radionuclides in the human body <BR id=""CRLF"">5.9. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">6. Background radiation
<BR id=""CRLF"">6.1. Radiation is natural<BR id=""CRLF"">6.2. Dose units<BR id=""CRLF"">6.3. Biological consequences of irradiation <BR id=""CRLF"">6.4. Background radiation<BR id=""CRLF"">6.5. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">7. Nuclear waste regulations
<BR id=""CRLF"">7.1. Regulatory organisations <BR id=""CRLF"">7.2. Protection philosophies <BR id=""CRLF"">7.3. Regulation of radioactive materials and sources <BR id=""CRLF"">7.4. Exemption criteria and levels<BR id=""CRLF"">7.5. Clearance of materials from regulatory control<BR id=""CRLF"">7.6. Double standards <BR id=""CRLF"">7.7. Dose limits <BR id=""CRLF"">7.8. Control of radiation hazards<BR id=""CRLF"">7.9. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">8. Principles of nuclear waste management
<BR id=""CRLF"">8.1. International consensus<BR id=""CRLF"">8.2. Objective of radioactive waste management <BR id=""CRLF"">8.3. Fundamental principles<BR id=""CRLF"">8.4. Comments on the fundamental principles <BR id=""CRLF"">8.5. Ethical principles<BR id=""CRLF"">8.6. Joint convention <BR id=""CRLF"">8.7. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">9. Sources and characteristics of nuclear waste
<BR id=""CRLF"">9.1. Key waste characteristics <BR id=""CRLF"">9.2. Classification schemes<BR id=""CRLF"">9.3. Examples of waste classification<BR id=""CRLF"">9.4. Sources of waste<BR id=""CRLF"">9.5. Front end and operational NFC waste <BR id=""CRLF"">9.6. Back end Open NFC waste<BR id=""CRLF"">9.7. Back end Closed NFC waste <BR id=""CRLF"">9.8. Back end NFC decommissioning waste <BR id=""CRLF"">9.9. Non-NFC wastes<BR id=""CRLF"">9.10. Accidental wastes <BR id=""CRLF"">9.11. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">10. Short-lived waste radionuclides
<BR id=""CRLF"">10.1. Introduction<BR id=""CRLF"">10.2. Tritium<BR id=""CRLF"">10.3. Cobalt-60 <BR id=""CRLF"">10.4. Strontium-90 <BR id=""CRLF"">10.5. Caesium-137 <BR id=""CRLF"">10.6. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">11. Long-lived waste radionuclides
<BR id=""CRLF"">11.1. Introduction<BR id=""CRLF"">11.2. Carbon-14<BR id=""CRLF"">11.3. Technetium-99 <BR id=""CRLF"">11.4. Iodine-129<BR id=""CRLF"">11.5. Plutonium <BR id=""CRLF"">11.6. Neptunium-237<BR id=""CRLF"">11.7. Criticality<BR id=""CRLF"">11.8. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">12. Management and characterisation of radioactive waste
<BR id=""CRLF"">12.1. Management roadmaps<BR id=""CRLF"">12.2. Predisposal<BR id=""CRLF"">12.3. Disposal<BR id=""CRLF"">12.4. Characterisation <BR id=""CRLF"">12.5. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">13. Pre-treatment of radioactive wastes
<BR id=""CRLF"">13.1. Pre-treatment definition<BR id=""CRLF"">13.2. Collection and segregation<BR id=""CRLF"">13.3. Adjustment <BR id=""CRLF"">13.4. Size reduction <BR id=""CRLF"">13.5. Packaging<BR id=""CRLF"">13.6. Decontamination<BR id=""CRLF"">13.7. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">14. Treatment of radioactive wastes
<BR id=""CRLF"">14.1. Treatment objectives<BR id=""CRLF"">14.2. Treatment of aqueous waste<BR id=""CRLF"">14.3. Treatment of organic liquid wastes <BR id=""CRLF"">14.4. Treatment of solid wastes<BR id=""CRLF"">14.5. Treatment of gaseous and airborne effluents<BR id=""CRLF"">14.6. Partitioning and transmutation<BR id=""CRLF"">14.7. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">15. Immobilisation of radioactive wastes in cement
<BR id=""CRLF"">15.1. Waste immobilisation<BR id=""CRLF"">15.2. Wasteform leaching behaviour <BR id=""CRLF"">15.3. Immobilisation techniques<BR id=""CRLF"">15.4. Immobilisation in hydraulic cements <BR id=""CRLF"">15.5. Hydraulic cements<BR id=""CRLF"">15.6. Cement hydration <BR id=""CRLF"">15.7. Hydrated cement composition<BR id=""CRLF"">15.8. Cementation of radioactive wastes <BR id=""CRLF"">15.9. Modified and composite cement systems <BR id=""CRLF"">15.10. Cementation technology<BR id=""CRLF"">15.11. Acceptance criteria<BR id=""CRLF"">15.12. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">16. Immobilisation of radioactive wastes in bitumen
<BR id=""CRLF"">16.1. Bituminisation<BR id=""CRLF"">16.2. Composition and properties of bitumen <BR id=""CRLF"">16.3. Bituminous materials for waste immobilisation <BR id=""CRLF"">16.4. Bituminisation technique<BR id=""CRLF"">16.5. Acceptance criteria<BR id=""CRLF"">16.6. Bitumen versus cement <BR id=""CRLF"">16.7. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">17. Immobilisation of radioactive wastes in glass
<BR id=""CRLF"">17.1. Vitrification<BR id=""CRLF"">17.2. Immobilisation mechanisms <BR id=""CRLF"">17.3. Retention of radionuclides <BR id=""CRLF"">17.4. Nuclear waste glasses<BR id=""CRLF"">17.5. Nuclear waste glass compositions<BR id=""CRLF"">17.6. Borosilicate glasses <BR id=""CRLF"">17.7. Role of boron oxide<BR id=""CRLF"">17.8. Role of intermediates and modifiers<BR id=""CRLF"">17.9. Difficult elements<BR id=""CRLF"">17.10. Phosphate glasses<BR id=""CRLF"">17.11. Glass composites <BR id=""CRLF"">17.12. Vitrification processes <BR id=""CRLF"">17.13. Cold crucible melters <BR id=""CRLF"">17.14. Vitrification technology<BR id=""CRLF"">17.15. Calcination<BR id=""CRLF"">17.16. Radionuclide volatility <BR id=""CRLF"">17.18. Acceptance criteria<BR id=""CRLF"">17.19. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">18. New immobilising hosts and technologies
<BR id=""CRLF"">18.1. New approaches<BR id=""CRLF"">18.2. Crystalline wasteforms <BR id=""CRLF"">18.3. Polyphase crystalline wasteforms: Synroc <BR id=""CRLF"">18.4. Polyphase crystalline waste forms: composites <BR id=""CRLF"">18.5. New technological approaches<BR id=""CRLF"">18.6. Metal matrix immobilisation<BR id=""CRLF"">18.7. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">19. Nuclear waste disposal
<BR id=""CRLF"">19.1. Disposal/Storage concepts<BR id=""CRLF"">19.2. Retention times<BR id=""CRLF"">19.3. Multibarrier concept<BR id=""CRLF"">19.4. Disposal/Storage options<BR id=""CRLF"">19.5. Role of the EBS<BR id=""CRLF"">19.6. Importance of geology<BR id=""CRLF"">19.7. Transport of radionuclides <BR id=""CRLF"">19.8. Disposal/Storage experience <BR id=""CRLF"">19.9. Acceptance criteria<BR id=""CRLF"">19.10. Bibliography
<BR id=""CRLF"">20. Performance assessment
<BR id=""CRLF"">20.1. Safety and performance assessments<BR id=""CRLF"">20.2. Safety requirements<BR id=""CRLF"">20.3. Safety case content<BR id=""CRLF"">20.4. Cement performance<BR id=""CRLF"">20.5. Bitumen performance <BR id=""CRLF"">20.6. Glass performance<BR id=""CRLF"">20.7. Radiation effects<BR id=""CRLF"">20.8. Research laboratories<BR id=""CRLF"">20.9. Conclusion<BR id=""CRLF"">20.10. Bibliography


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© Elsevier Science 2005
Elsevier Science
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About the Author

Michael Ojovan

Dr Michael I. Ojovan is an Associate Professor (Reader) in Materials Science and Waste Immobilisation at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, UK

Michael Ojovan

Dr Michael I. Ojovan is an Associate Professor (Reader) in Materials Science and Waste Immobilisation at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, UK

William Lee

Professor William E. Lee FREng is Deputy Chair of the Government advisory Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), and Director of the Centre for Nuclear Engineering at Imperial College London, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Immobilisation Science Laboratory, University of Sheffield, UK.

William Lee

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials, Imperial College London, UK


" excellent source of knowledge for undergraduates who require general information on nuclear waste and its immobilisation." -Dr. John Fernie in MATERIALS WORLD, May 2007

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