An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080221267, 9781483139210

An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy

2nd Edition

International Series on Materials Science and Technology

Authors: R. H. Parker
Editors: D. W. Hopkins
eBook ISBN: 9781483139210
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 376
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An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy, Second Edition introduces the reader to chemical metallurgy, including its fundamental principles and some of their applications. References in the text to a date and the author of some law or principle of physical chemistry are given for the sake of historical significance. This book is comprised of eight chapters and opens with an overview of thermodynamics, with particular emphasis on the first law of thermodynamics; the expansion of a gas; thermodynamically reversible changes; applications of thermochemistry in metallurgy; and experimental techniques in calorimetry. The following chapters focus on entropy, free energy, and chemical equilibrium; solutions and reaction kinetics; extraction and refining of metals, including refining by preferential oxidation; and corrosion and electrodeposition. Electrochemistry and interfacial phenomena are also explored, along with surface energy and surface tension, electrolytes and electrolysis, and reduction and oxidation potentials. This monograph is written primarily for chemists and metallurgists as well as students embarking on courses in chemical metallurgy.

Table of Contents


Preface to Second Edition

Symbols and Abbreviations

1. Introduction to Thermodynamics

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Energy

1.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics

1.4 The Expansion of a Gas: Thermodynamic Variables

1.5 Thermodynamically Reversible Changes

1.6 "Heat Content" or "Enthalpy"

1.7 Gas Expansion: Maximum Work

1.8 Heat Capacity: The Temperature-dependence of Enthalpy Changes

1.9 Thermochemistry and Its Applications in Metallurgy

1.10 Experimental Techniques in Calorimetry


2. Entropy, Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Statistical Nature of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

2.3 A Different Approach to the Entropy Function: Cyclic Processes

2.4 Some Thermodynamic Relationships Involving Entropy

2.5 The Experimental Determination of Entropies

2.6 The Driving Force behind a Chemical Reaction

2.7 Free Energy

2.8 Some Thermodynamic Relationships Involving Gibbs Free Energy

2.9 Chemical Equilibrium: The Equilibrium Constant

2.10 Controlled Atmospheres

2.11 The Equilibrium Constant and the Stability of Compounds

2.12 The Free Energy Change of a Reaction in Terms of the Concentrations of the Reactants and Products of the Reaction: The van't Hoff Isotherm

2.13 The Relationship between the Equilibrium Constant and the Temperature of a Reaction: The van't Hoff Isochore and the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation

2.14 Experimental Determination of Free Energy Changes


3. Solutions

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Ideal Solutions: Raoult's Law

3.3 Deviations from Raoult's Law

3.4 Activities

3.5 Henry's Law and Dilute Solutions: Changing the Standard State

3.6 Experimental Determination of Activities

3.7 The Effect of Additional Solutes on the Activity of the Original Solute of a Binary Solution: Interaction Coefficients

3.8 Free Energy of Mixing

3.9 Regular Solutions

3.10 Partial Molar Quantities

3.11 The Gibbs-Duhem Equation

3.12 Excess Integral and Partial Molar Quantities

3.13 Application of Free Energy-Composition Curves to the Study of Alloy Systems


4. Reaction Kinetics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Effect of Concentration of Reacting Substances

4.3 Quantitative Relationships between Rate of Reaction and Concentration of Reactants

4.4 Determination of the Order and Velocity Constant of a Reaction

4.5 Reversible Reactions

4.6 The Effect of Temperature on Rates of Reaction

4.7 Theories of Reaction Kinetics: The Collision Theory

4.8 The Activated Complex

4.9 The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates

4.10 Unimolecular Reactions

4.11 Catalysis

4.12 Diffusion

4.13 Diffusion in the Solid State

4.14 Reaction Kinetics in Metallurgical Systems


5. Electrochemistry

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Electrolytes

5.3 Electrolysis

5.4 Conduction in Electrolytes

5.5 The Thermodynamics of the Reaction at an Electrode

5.6 The Electrode Potential: The Galvanic Cell

5.7 The Junction Potential between Two Electrolytes: Symbolic Representation of Cells

5.8 The Measurement of Cell e.m.f.'s and Electrode Potentials

5.9 Reduction and Oxidation Potentials: The Standard Electrode Potential Series

5.10 Concentration Cells

5.11 The Use of e.m.f Measurements with Suitable Cells for the Determination of Thermodynamic Variables

5.12 The Kinetics of Electrode Processes: Polarization

5.13 The Effects of Polarization: Decomposition Voltage: Discharge Potential


6. Interfacial Phenomena

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Surface Energy and Surface Tension

6.3 Interfacial Energy of other than Gas/Liquid Interfaces: The Three-Phase Interface

6.4 Adsorption

6.5 Nucleation

6.6 Mass Transport in Heterogeneous Reactions

6.7 Evaporation


7. Extraction and Refining of Metals

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Slags

7.3 The Reduction of Oxides

7.4 Thermal Pretreatment

7.5 Smelting of Sulphides

7.6 The Advantages of Halides

7.7 Refining by Preferential Oxidation

7.8 Hydrometallurgical Processes

7.9 Electrolysis


8. Corrosion and Electrodeposition

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Oxide Films

8.3 The Tendency to Corrode in Aqueous Media

8.4 The Rate of Corrosion in Aqueous Media

8.5 The Prevention of Corrosion

8.6 Electrodeposition



Other Titles in the Series


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© Pergamon 1978
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About the Author

R. H. Parker

Affiliations and Expertise

Camborne School of Mines, Geothermal Energy Project, Rosemanowes Quarry, Herniss, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9DU

About the Editor

D. W. Hopkins

Affiliations and Expertise

University College of Swansea, UK