An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology

An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology

1st Edition - July 1, 2014

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  • Author: Mikko Nikinmaa
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124115811
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124115743

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An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology is an introductory reference for all aspects of toxicology pertaining to aquatic environments. As water sources diminish, the need to understand the effects that contaminants may have on aquatic organisms and ecosystems increases in importance. This book will provide you with a solid understanding of aquatic toxicology, its past, its cutting-edge present and its likely future. An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology will introduce you to the global issue of aquatic contamination, detailing the major sources of contamination, from where they originate, and their effects on aquatic organisms and their environment. State-of-the-art toxicological topics covered include nanotoxicology, toxicogenomics, bioinformatics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, as well as water management and the toxicological effects of major environmental issues such as algal blooms, climate change and ocean acidification. This book is intended for anyone who wants to know more about the impact of toxicants on aquatic organisms and ecosystems, or to keep up to date with recent and future developments in the field.

Key Features

  • Provides with the latest perspectives on the impacts of toxicants on aquatic environments, such as nanotoxicology, toxicogenomics, ocean acidification and eutrophication
  • Offers a complete overview, beginning with the origins of aquatic toxicology and concluding with potential future challenges
  • Includes guidance on testing methods and a glossary of aquatic toxicology terms


Toxicologists and scientists new to the field of aquatic toxicology. Graduate students, postgraduates and teachers in the field of ecotoxicology

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Introduction: What is Aquatic Toxicology?

    • 1.1. The History of Aquatic Toxicology
    • 1.2. The Main Present and Future Challenges
    • 1.3. What is Measured

    Chapter 2. What Causes Aquatic Contamination?

    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Metals, Metalloids, and Organometallic Compounds
    • 2.3. Other Inorganic Compounds, Including Factors Causing Eutrophication
    • 2.4. Organic Compounds
    • 2.5. Nanomaterials
    • 2.6. Radiation
    • 2.7. Genetic Modification

    Chapter 3. Principles of Water Purification

    • 3.1. Principles of wastewater treatment
    • 3.2. Disinfection Steps for Generating Household Water
    • 3.3. Sludge Treatment

    Chapter 4. Sources and Transport of Chemicals in Aquatic Systems

    • 4.1. The Major Sources of Pollutants
    • 4.2. Transport of Pollutants in the Environment

    Chapter 5. The Most Important Experimental Designs and Organisms in Aquatic Toxicology

    • 5.1. Model Organisms Used
    • 5.2. Micro- and Mesocosms
    • 5.3. Ecosystem Manipulations
    • 5.4. Biomonitoring

    Chapter 6. Factors Affecting the Bioavailability of Chemicals

    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Pharmacological Bioavailability
    • 6.3. Environmental Bioavailability

    Chapter 7. Chemical Uptake by Organisms

    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. The Uptake of Ionic (Hydrophilic) Compounds
    • 7.3. The Uptake of Lipophilic Compounds

    Chapter 8. Chemical Distribution in Organisms

    • 8.1. Introduction: Distribution of Chemicals in Organisms
    • 8.2. Storage Sites of Chemicals in Organisms
    • 8.3. Cellular Distribution of Chemicals

    Chapter 9. Detoxification

    • 9.1. Biotransformation of Organic Compounds
    • 9.2. Detoxification by Forming Non-Harmful Complexes
    • 9.3. Detoxification by Compartmentalization

    Chapter 10. Excretion of Compounds from Organisms

    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Cellular Excretion
    • 10.3. Excretion from Gills
    • 10.4. Excretion from the Kidney and Other Excretory Organs
    • 10.5. Excretion in Bile Via the Intestine
    • 10.6. Excretion From Multicellular Plants (Including Algae)

    Chapter 11. Effects on Organisms

    • 11.1. ’Omics in Aquatic Toxicology—Ecotoxicogenomics
    • 11.2. Genotoxicity
    • 11.3. Oxidative Stress
    • 11.4. Effects on Reproduction
    • 11.5. Neurotoxicity
    • 11.6. Effects on Energy Metabolism
    • 11.7. Membrane Effects
    • 11.8. Apoptosis and Necrosis
    • 11.9. Immunotoxicology
    • 11.10. Effects on Development
    • 11.11. Teratogenesis and Carcinogenesis
    • 11.12. Behavioral Effects

    Chapter 12. Bioindicators and Biomarkers

    • 12.1. Bioindicators
    • 12.2. Biomarkers

    Chapter 13. Interactions between Chemicals

    • 13.1. Lack of Interacting Effects (Additive Toxicity)
    • 13.2. Agonism (potentiation, synergism)
    • 13.3. Antagonism
    • 13.4. Has Potentiation or Inhibition of Toxicity by Chemical Interactions been Demonstrated in Natural Environments?

    Chapter 14. Acute and Chronic Toxicity

    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Differentiating Between General Stress Responses and Specific Acute Responses to Pollutants
    • 14.3. Time Courses of Toxicant Responses
    • 14.4. What Signifies a Chronic Toxicant Response?

    Chapter 15. Interactions Between Natural Environmental Factors and Toxicity

    • 15.1. Temperature
    • 15.2. Oxygen
    • 15.3. Salinity
    • 15.4. Other Abiotic Stresses
    • 15.5. Competition and Predation

    Chapter 16. Effects of Chemicals on Aquatic Populations

    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Epidemiology
    • 16.3. Demographic Effects
    • 16.4. Population Genetics

    Chapter 17. Effects of Chemicals on Aquatic Communities and Ecosystems

    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. Community Ecotoxicology
    • 17.3. Ecosystem Ecotoxicology

    Chapter 18. Modeling Toxicity

    • 18.1. Introduction
    • 18.2. Risk Assessment
    • 18.3. Models with Lethality as an End Point
    • 18.4. Toxicokinetic Modeling
    • 18.5. QSAR
    • 18.6. Modeling The Properties of Water Affecting Toxicity (of Metals)

Product details

  • No. of pages: 252
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: July 1, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124115811
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124115743

About the Author

Mikko Nikinmaa

Mikko Nikinmaa
Mikko Nikinmaa got his high school diploma (International Baccalaureate) from the United World College of the Atlantic, Llantwit Major, U.K. His university education including the Ph. D. degree he accomplished at University of Helsinki, Finland. He did postdoctoral work in Odense University, Denmark, and Stanford University, USA. Thereafter he worked in the University of Helsinki with research visits to University of British Columbia, Vancouver, and Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. In 1995 he was appointed Professor of Zoology in the University of Turku. He was the President of Scandinavian Physiological Society in 1994-1996, and a member of National Research Council of Environment and Natural Resources in 1995-1997. He served as a Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences in 2000-2004, and was the director of the Center of Excellence in Evolutionary Genetics and Physiology (appointed by the Academy of Finland) in 2006-2011. He has been chief editor of Aquatic Toxicology since 2004 and subject (respiratory and comparative physiology) editor of Acta Physiologica since 1997. Presently he is editorial board member in four journals. His approximately 200 publications include a book on Vertebrate Red Blood Cells published by Springer and a review on Membrane Transport and the Control of Haemoglobin Oxygen Affinity in Physiological Reviews. He has reviewed grant applications to agencies from more than ten different countries, and served as an evaluator of academic positions in USA, Canada, U.K., Sweden, South Africa and Finland. More than 30 journals have used him as peer reviewer. His research interests lie in how environmental changes, particularly temperature, oxygen and toxicants, affect cellular functions especially in fish. An important aspect of research is environmental regulation of gene expression, for example how toxicants, oxygen and temperature changes affect transcription, translation and protein stability.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biology, Laboratory of Animal Physiology, University of Turku, Finland

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