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American Trypanosomiasis Chagas Disease - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128010297, 9780128010693

American Trypanosomiasis Chagas Disease

2nd Edition

One Hundred Years of Research

Editors: Jenny Telleria Michel Tibayrenc
eBook ISBN: 9780128010693
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128010297
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 18th January 2017
Page Count: 844
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American Trypanosomiasis, Chagas Disease: One Hundred Years of Research, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of Chagas disease and discusses the latest discoveries concerning the three elements that compose the transmission chain of the disease, the host, the insect vectors, and the causative parasite.

In addition, new insights on the molecular biology and diagnostics of Chagas diseases, the persistence of infections in the host, and the interaction of the parasite and host metabolism are now included in this new and updated edition.

Key Features

  • Provides a thoroughly revised, updated, and streamlined new edition with contributions from leading authorities and industry experts
  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments of Chagas disease, covering biology, clinical aspects, and human sciences
  • Includes a summarizing chapter that provides key insights of practical significance for prevention efforts


Researchers in parasitology, tropical medicine and public health

Table of Contents

1. History of the discovery of the American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)

  • Abstract
  • A beautiful history of life and work
  • The history of a significant discovery
  • Salvador Mazza: marked the history of the knowledge of his disease
  • Cecilio Romanha: his contribution to the identification of the disease
  • First evidence of Trypanosomiasis Americana (Chagas disease) in various countries of Latin America
  • Chagas disease 100 years after the discovery
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

2. Chagas disease in pre-Colombian civilizations

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Genetic variation
  • Archeology
  • Biochemistry (Bioarcheology)
  • The parasite transmission cycle
  • Insect vectors associated with the human habitats
  • Historical overview
  • Pre-Hispanic settlements in areas of transmission of T. cruzi
  • Oral infection by T. cruzi
  • Evidence of human T. cruzi infection in pre-Colombian civilizations
  • References

3. Social and medical aspects on Chagas disease management and control

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • General frame and costs of HCD
  • The medical burden of HCD in endemic and nonendemic areas
  • The particular question of specific treatment of Chagas disease
  • Some social remarks concerning the control of HCD
  • Final remarks
  • Abbreviations
  • References

4. Current epidemiological trends of Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges: epidemiology, surveillance, and health policies

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Modes of transmission
  • Methods and measurement of epidemiological trends in the continent from 1980 to 2006
  • Feasibility of interruption of transmission
  • Current control programs
  • Economic impact
  • Epidemiological impact in the region
  • Epidemiological impact
  • Future challenges
  • References

5. Geographical distribution of Chagas disease

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Vector phylogeography and ecology
  • Parasite phylogeography and ecology
  • Epidemiological implications of parasite distributions
  • Vector–parasite–host interactions and implications for Chagas disease distribution
  • Assessment of regions affected by Chagas disease
  • Oceania and Asia
  • Chagas disease in Mexico and Central America
  • Chagas disease in the Amazon region
  • Chagas disease in the Andean region
  • Chagas disease in the Southern Cone countries
  • References

6. Classification and systematics of the Triatominae

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Subfamily: Triatominae
  • Tribes and genera
  • Concept of species
  • Conclusions
  • A consensual approach to the species
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

7. Biology of Triatominae

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • General biology of vectors
  • Insight into the biology and ecology of Triatominae in the silvatic environment
  • Vectorial capacity and domesticity
  • Vector control strategy
  • Acknowledgments
  • Glossary
  • References

8. Population genetics of Triatominae

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Vector population structure directs Chagas disease epidemiology and control
  • Genetic variation, population structure, and implications for vector control
  • Genetic variation and population structure of T. infestans, T. dimidiata, R. prolixus and other significant vectors of human Chagas disease
  • Perspective and future directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

9. Geographic distribution of Triatominae vectors in America

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Limitation of sampling methods to estimate the geographic distribution of Triatominae
  • Pattern of species richness in the New World Triatominae
  • Distribution of Triatominae in the Americas
  • Environmental variables as indicators of Triatominae geographic distribution
  • Global warming and expansion of geographic range of T. infestans
  • Glossary
  • References

10. Control strategies against Triatominae

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Elimination of domestic populations of Triatominae
  • Multinational initiatives
  • The beginning of the end?
  • Criteria for stratification of vector control priorities
  • Insecticide resistance
  • New technologies for vector control
  • The political commitment
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

11. Ecological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi: Wild hosts and reservoirs

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Order Didelphimorphia
  • Superorder Xenarthra
  • Order Rodentia
  • Order Primata
  • Order Carnivora
  • Order Chiroptera
  • Order Artiodactyla
  • References

12. Trypanosoma cruzi enzootic cycle: General aspects, domestic and synanthropic hosts and reservoirs

  • Abstract
  • The complex Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle
  • What are the Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs?
  • Importance of wild and synanthropic mammals in public health—Brazil
  • Domestic mammalian species
  • Domestic nonmammalian species
  • Importance of infected domestic mammals on public health in Brazil
  • Mixed infection
  • References

13. Veterinary aspects

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The various ways of infection of animals (and humans)
  • The problem of diagnosis in animals
  • Natural infections in domestic animals and livestock
  • Experimental infections in livestock
  • New cycles establish in the United States
  • Conclusions
  • References

14. Experimental studies of Chagas disease in animal models

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Animal species used as experimental model in Chagas disease
  • Conclusions
  • References

15. Classification and phylogeny of Trypanosoma cruzi

  • Abstract
  • Application of molecular phylogenetics to trypanosome taxonomy and understanding evolution
  • Origin of trypanosomes and the relationship between T. cruzi and T. brucei
  • Relationships within the genus Trypanosoma
  • Molecular phylogenetics and traditional taxonomy of mammalian trypanosomes
  • The main groups of trypanosomes recognized in molecular phylogenetic analyses
  • The T. cruzi clade
  • The origin of the T. cruzi clade
  • Outlook
  • Glossary
  • References

16. Biology of Trypanosoma cruzi and biological diversity

  • Abstract
  • Taxonomy
  • Introduction
  • Evolutionary stages
  • Biological cycle
  • Biology in the vertebrate host
  • Biology in the invertebrate host
  • Biological diversity of T. cruzi
  • Maintaining T. cruzi in the laboratory
  • Glossary
  • References

17. Biochemistry of Trypanosoma cruzi

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Chemotherapy of Chagas disease
  • Metabolic pathways in T. cruzi that could provide targets for drugs against Chagas disease
  • Redox metabolism
  • Acidocalcisome biochemistry and osmoregulation
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

18. Ultrastructure of Trypanosoma cruzi and its interaction with host cells

  • Abstract
  • Structural organization of Trypanosoma cruzi
  • The nucleus
  • The kinetoplast–mitochondrion complex
  • The glycosome
  • The acidocalcisome
  • The contractile vacuole
  • The cytoskeleton
  • The flagellum
  • The flagellar pocket
  • The secretory pathway
  • The endocytic pathway
  • Other cytoplasmic structures
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

19. Genetics of Trypanosoma cruzi

  • Abstract
  • Nuclear genome
    • Sequencing of the CL Brener reference strain—a historical perspective
    • Sequencing strategy, genome organization, and content
    • Comparative genome sequencing and analyses
    • Transcription mechanisms and genetic expression in T. cruzi
    • References
  • Kinetoplast genome
    • Introduction
    • kDNA organization
    • Replication model of kDNA
    • Maxicircles and minicircles: kDNA coding
    • Determination of T. cruzi lineages analyzing minicircles DNA sequences
    • References

20. Experimental and natural recombination in Trypanosoma cruzi

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Genetic diversity of T. cruzi
  • Experimental recombination
  • Recombination in natural populations
  • Conclusions and future research
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

21. Trypanosoma cruzi and the model of predominant clonal evolution

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • An indispensable recall of evolutionary genetics
  • The results: how does T. cruzi evolve?
  • Conclusion: Trypanosoma cruzi should be a star in the field of pathogen population genetics
  • Glossary of specialized terms
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

22. Vector transmission: How it works, what transmits, where it occurs

  • Abstract
  • How does transmission work?
  • Who transmits the parasite?
  • Where does the transmission occur?
  • The perception of vectors and a need for education
  • References

23. Maternal–fetal transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi

  • Abstract
  • From maternal–fetal transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to congenital Chagas disease: definitions and limits
  • Epidemiological aspects of congenital infection with Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Routes of maternal–fetal transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Timing of maternal–fetal transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Parasitic factors involved in transplacental transmission and development of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in fetuses/newborns
  • Maternal factors involved in transmission and development of Trypanosoma cruzi infection
  • Interactions between the maternal and fetal immune systems
  • Fetal/neonatal factors involved in the development of congenital Chagas disease
  • Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in other mammals
  • Pregnancy outcomes, clinical manifestations, and long-term consequences of congenital Chagas disease
  • Laboratory diagnosis of congenital infection with Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Treatment of congenital infection with Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Prevention and control of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection
  • Conclusions
  • References

24. Other forms of transmission: Blood transfusion, organ transplantation, laboratory accidents, oral and sexual transmission

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Blood transfusion
  • Organ transplantation
  • Laboratory-acquired contamination
  • Oral transmission
  • Sexual transmission
  • References

25. Protective host response to Trypanosoma cruzi and its limitations

  • Abstract
  • Innate immune response in T. cruzi infection
  • Adaptive immune response: induction, characterization, and role of the T cell response
  • Adaptive immune response: the B cell response and production of antibodies
  • Deregulations of T and B lymphocyte responses
  • Escape mechanisms of T. cruzi to the immune responses
  • Conclusion
  • References

26. Cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and the type I interferon response

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Attachment to the host cell and parasite homing
  • Nonphagocytic cell invasion by T. cruzi
  • Escape from the lysosome
  • Host cellular processes required for T. cruzi invasion
  • Global transcriptional responses to T. cruzi infection: type I IFN response
  • Type I IFNs
  • Signaling pathways involved in type I IFN production in T. cruzi infected cells
  • Type I IFN responses to T. cruzi infection in the mouse model
  • The balance between type I and type II IFN responses during infection with intracellular pathogens
  • Concluding remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • Glossary
  • References

27. Human genetic susceptibility to Chagas disease

  • Abstract
  • Phenotypes for study
  • Heritability
  • Candidate gene studies
  • Genetic associations from candidate gene studies to date
  • HLA
  • Focusing on the MHC class III region
  • Chemokines and their receptors
  • Cytokines and their receptors
  • Other genes
  • Genome-wide association studies
  • The future
  • References

28. Clinical phases and forms of Chagas disease

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Acute phase
  • Chronic phase
  • Concluding remarks
  • Glossary
  • References

29. Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • History of diagnosis in Chagas disease
  • Diagnosis of T. cruzi infection
  • Parasitological tests
  • Serological tests
  • Blood banks, serology, and quality control for Chagas disease
  • Application of diagnostic tests in different contexts
  • Quality control in serology
  • Prophylaxis to avoid accidental contamination
  • Future perspectives
  • References

30. AIDS and Chagas’ disease

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology of Chagas’ disease in Latin America and Argentina
  • Natural history of Chagas’ disease
  • Pathogenic mechanisms of Chagas’ disease reactivation in AIDS patients
  • AIDS and Chagas’ disease
  • Clinical aspects
  • Laboratory diagnosis
  • Diagnosis of chagasic meningoencephalitis
  • Diagnosis of chagasic tumor-like lesions
  • Diagnosis of heart compromise
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Glossary of specialized terms of this chapter
  • References

31. Treatment of Chagas disease

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Drugs which inhibit protein or purine synthesis
  • Inhibitors of ergoesterol
  • Ofloxacine
  • Inhibitors of trypanothione metabolism
  • Inhibitors of cysteine protease (CPI)
  • Inhibitors of phospholipids
  • Inhibitors of pyrophosphate metabolism
  • Natural drugs
  • Other drugs
  • Treatment of human infection
  • Resistance of T. cruzi to drugs
  • Glossary
  • References

32. Vaccine development for Chagas disease

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Immune mechanisms associated with protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection
  • DNA vaccination in experimental models of Trypanosoma cruzi infection
  • Vaccination with attenuated parasites (premunition)
  • Final considerations
  • Acknowledgments
  • References


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2017
18th January 2017
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editors

Jenny Telleria

Jenny Telleria

Jenny Telleria, the initiator of the present book, got her PhD degree in the area of population genetics and parasitology at the University of Montpellier, France.

She started her work in the area of parasitology in 1990 as university teacher assistant. Since then she has focused her research on the three components of Chagas disease, namely: the host, the vector and mainly the parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi).

She has worked in several countries in Latin America and Europe, (Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Belgium and France).

She has presently a permanent position of Research Engineer at the French “Institut de recherche pour le développement” (IRD) and she has been Dr Michel Tibayrenc’s collaborator for more than 17 years.

At present, she works at the Center of Research in health of Latin America "CISeAL", Quito-Nayon, Ecuador. Recent research deals with experimental evolution of T. cruzi, more specifically the parasite’s gene expression surveyed by proteomics analysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases Laboratory, IRD Center, Montpellier, France

Michel Tibayrenc

Michel Tibayrenc

Michel Tibayrenc, MD, PhD, has worked on the evolution of infectious diseases for more than 35 years. He is a director of research emeritus at the French Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), the founder and editor-in-chief of Infection, Genetics and Evolution (Elsevier), with a 2014 impact factor of 3.015, and the founder and principal organizer of the international congresses MEEGID (molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics of infectious diseases). He is the author of more than 200 international papers. He has worked for one year in Algeria (as a general practitioner), one year in French Guiana, seven years in Bolivia, five years in the United States, and three years in Thailand. He has been the head of the unit of research “genetics and evolution of infectious diseases” at the IRD research center in Montpellier, France, for 20 years. With his collaborator Jenny Telleria, he is the founder and scientific adviser of the Bolivian Society of Human Genetics (2012). He has won the prize of the Belgian Society of tropical medicine (1985), the medal of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro (2000), for his work on Chagas disease, and he is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993).

Affiliations and Expertise

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases Laboratory, IRD Center, Montpellier, France

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