Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857095220, 9780857097422

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance

1st Edition

Towards Zero Carbon Transportation

Editors: Richard Folkson
eBook ISBN: 9780857097422
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857095220
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 6th March 2014
Page Count: 784
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Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
    • Abstract:
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Technology roadmaps to deliver low carbon targets
    • 1.3 Vehicle technology contributions to low carbon targets
    • 1.4 Powertrain technology contributions to low carbon targets
    • 1.5 Regulatory requirements and consumer trends
    • 1.6 Traffic management factors
    • 1.7 Global manufacturing and consumer trends
    • 1.8 Commercial vehicles and buses
    • 1.9 Electrification of transport technology
    • 1.10 Current and future trends
    • 1.11 Affordability and consumer appeal
    • 1.12 Long-term vision: solar energy/hydrogen economy
    • 1.13 Conclusion
    • 1.14 Sources of further information and advice
    • 1.15 Acknowledgements
  • Part I: Alternative fuels, advanced additives and oils to improve environmental performance of vehicles
    • Chapter 2: The role of alternative and renewable liquid fuels in environmentally sustainable transport
      • Abstract:
      • 2.1 Introduction: competing fuels and energy carriers
      • 2.2 Market penetration of biodiesel
      • 2.3 Market penetration of alcohol fuels
      • 2.4 Future provision of alternative liquid fuels: the biomass limit
      • 2.5 Beyond the biomass limit: sustainable organic fuels for transport (SOFT)
      • 2.6 Renewable fuels within an integrated renewable energy system
      • 2.7 Conclusions
      • 2.8 Acknowledgements
      • 2.10 Appendix: abbreviations
    • Chapter 3: Using alternative and renewable liquid fuels to improve the environmental performance of internal combustion engines: key challenges and blending technologies
      • Abstract:
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines: fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO)
      • 3.3 Alcohol fuels: physico-chemical properties
      • 3.4 Alcohol fuels for spark-ignition engines: effects on performance and efficiency
      • 3.5 Alcohol fuels for spark-ignition engines: pollutant emissions, deposits and lubricant dilution
      • 3.6 Alcohol fuels for compression-ignition engines
      • 3.7 Vehicle and blending technologies for alternative liquid fuels: flexible-fuel vehicles
      • 3.8 Vehicle and blending technologies for alternative liquid fuels: ethanol-gasoline and methanol-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles
      • 3.9 Vehicle and blending technologies for alternative liquid fuels: tri-flex-fuel vehicles and iso-stoichiometric ternary blends
      • 3.10 Conclusions
      • 3.11 Acknowledgements
      • 3.13 Appendix: abbreviations
    • Chapter 4: Alternative and renewable gaseous fuels to improve vehicle environmental performance
      • Abstract:
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Fossil natural gas
      • 4.3 Fossil natural gas production, transmission and distribution
      • 4.4 Natural gas engines and vehicles
      • 4.5 Biomethane/biogas
      • 4.6 Biogas production, distribution and storage
      • 4.7 Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
      • 4.8 LPG production, distribution, storage and use in vehicles
      • 4.9 Hydrogen
      • 4.10 Hydrogen production, distribution, storage and use in vehicles
      • 4.11 Life-cycle analysis of alternative gaseous fuels
      • 4.12 Future trends
    • Chapter 5: Electricity and hydrogen as energy vectors for transportation vehicles
      • Abstract:
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Overview of hydrogen production
      • 5.3 Overview of electricity production
      • 5.4 Hydrogen storage and transportation
      • 5.5 Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: Advanced engine oils to improve the performance of modern internal combustion engines
      • Abstract:
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 The role of the lubricant in a modern internal combustion engine
      • 6.3 The composition of a typical modern engine lubricant
      • 6.4 Diesel engine lubricant challenges
      • 6.5 Gasoline engine lubrication challenges
      • 6.6 Industry and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications for engine oils
      • 6.7 Lubricating modern engines in developing markets
      • 6.8 Future engine oil evolution
      • 6.9 Conclusions
      • 6.10 Acknowledgements
      • 6.11 Sources of further information and advice
    • Chapter 7: Advanced fuel additives for modern internal combustion engines
      • Abstract:
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Additive types and their impact on conventional and advanced fuels
      • 7.3 Impacts of additives on combustion characteristics
      • 7.4 Diesel performance and deposit control additives
      • 7.5 Gasoline performance and deposit control additives
      • 7.6 Conclusions and future trends
      • 7.7 Sources of further information and advice
  • Part II: Improving engine and vehicle design
    • Chapter 8: Internal combustion engine cycles and concepts
      • Abstract:
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Ideal engine operation cycles
      • 8.3 Alternative engine operating cycles
      • 8.4 Comparison of engine cycle performance
      • 8.5 Advantages and limitations of internal combustion engines
      • 8.6 Conclusions and future trends
      • 8.7 Sources of further information and advice
    • Chapter 9: Improving the environmental performance of heavy-duty vehicles and engines: key issues and system design approaches
      • Abstract:
      • 9.1 Introduction: classifying engine and vehicle types
      • 9.2 The use of alternative fuels to improve environmental performance
      • 9.3 Electric, hydraulic, and flywheel hybrid powertrains for improved fuel economy
      • 9.4 Vehicle emissions and fuel economy regulations
      • 9.5 Improving vehicle design to meet environmental regulations
      • 9.6 Improving engine design to meet environmental regulations
      • 9.7 Developments in light-duty diesel engine technologies
      • 9.8 A system design approach to address challenges in advanced engine and vehicle technologies
      • 9.9 Summary of next-generation technologies for heavy-duty vehicles
      • 9.11 Appendix: units and unit conversion
    • Chapter 10: Improving the environmental performance of heavyduty vehicles and engines: particular technologies
      • Abstract:
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Fuel injection systems and engine performance
      • 10.3 Conventional combustion technologies and engine performance
      • 10.4 Advanced low-temperature combustion systems
      • 10.5 Engine air flow and turbocharging systems
      • 10.6 Engine downsizing, down-speeding, and down-breathing
      • 10.7 Mechanical and electrical supercharging systems for improved emissions control and performance
      • 10.8 Turbocompounding to improve engine performance
      • 10.9 Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems
      • 10.10 Improving conventional valvetrains and the use of variable valve actuation (VVA)
      • 10.11 Heavy-duty diesel engine cooling and thermal management systems
      • 10.12 Aftertreatment technologies for emissions control
      • 10.13 Waste heat recovery (WHR) systems
      • 10.14 Engine mechanical friction reduction technologies
      • 10.15 Electronic controls and on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems to optimize engine performance
      • 10.16 Development of natural gas engines
      • 10.17 Future trends
      • 10.19 Appendix: units and unit conversion
    • Chapter 11: Advanced and conventional internal combustion engine materials
      • Abstract:
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Advanced internal combustion (IC) engine materials: compact graphite iron (CGI)
      • 11.3 Graphite/carbon and carbon/carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs)
      • 11.4 Advanced polymers: polyamides for manufacturing intake manifolds
      • 11.5 Advanced alloys and ceramics for manufacturing valves and other components
      • 11.6 Materials for particular components in IC engines
    • Chapter 12: Advanced transmission technologies to improve vehicle performance
      • Abstract:
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Manual transmission: six-speed front-wheel-drive SG6-310
      • 12.3 Dual-clutch transmission: seven-speed front-wheel-drive 7G-DCT
      • 12.4 Automatic transmission: seven-speed 7G-Tronic Plus
      • 12.5 Continuously variable transmission: front-wheel-drive CVT AUTOTRONIC
      • 12.6 P2 hybrid transmission
      • 12.7 Two-mode hybrid transmission advanced hybrid system-cars (AHS-C)
      • 12.8 Automated commercial vehicle transmission: 16-speed G260-16
    • Chapter 13: Sustainable design and manufacture of lightweight vehicle structures
      • Abstract:
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 The value of mass reduction
      • 13.3 General challenges and opportunities
      • 13.4 Possible architectures of the next-generation vehicle
      • 13.5 Specific lightweighting technologies
      • 13.6 Future trends
      • 13.7 Acknowledgements
    • Chapter 14: Improving vehicle rolling resistance and aerodynamics
      • Abstract:
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Overview of vehicle aerodynamics
      • 14.3 Rolling resistance in vehicles
      • 14.4 Advanced vehicle design for drag reduction
      • 14.5 Advanced tire design and materials
      • 14.6 Conclusions and future trends
    • Chapter 15: Mechanical and electrical flywheel hybrid technology to store energy in vehicles
      • Abstract:
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 The development of flywheel technology
      • 15.3 Types and properties of flywheels
      • 15.4 Transmissions for flywheels
      • 15.5 Performance evaluation of flywheel hybrid vehicles
      • 15.6 Technical challenges in flywheel development
      • 15.7 Conclusions and future trends
    • Chapter 16: Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid powertrains for improved fuel economy in vehicles
      • Abstract:
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Hydraulic hybrid principle of operation and system architectures
      • 16.3 Hydraulic component design and modeling
      • 16.4 Integrated hydraulic hybrid vehicle simulation
      • 16.5 Design and control of hydraulic hybrid powertrains
      • 16.6 Examples of practical applications
      • 16.7 Pneumatic hybrids
    • Chapter 17: Integration and performance of regenerative braking and energy recovery technologies in vehicles
      • Abstract:
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Types and properties of regenerative braking and energy recovery
      • 17.3 Hybridisation with energy recovery: design and performance issues
      • 17.4 Design integration and operational optimisation
      • 17.5 Advantages and limitations of regenerative braking
      • 17.6 Conclusions and future trends
  • Part III: Electric/hybrid vehicle technologies
    • Chapter 18: Hybrid drive train technologies for vehicles
      • Abstract:
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Hybrid vehicle configurations and classification
      • 18.3 The challenges of hybrid vehicle design
      • 18.4 Solutions to the design problem
      • 18.5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 19: Battery technology for CO2 reduction
      • Abstract:
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 CO2 reduction opportunities of using batteries
      • 19.3 Battery functionality and chemistries for vehicle applications
      • 19.4 Lithium ion cells
      • 19.5 High voltage battery pack design
      • 19.6 Battery management systems
      • 19.7 Future trends
      • 19.8 Conclusions
    • Chapter 20: Conventional fuel/hybrid electric vehicles
      • Abstract:
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Basic components of a hybrid electric vehicle system
      • 20.3 Architectures of hybrid electric drive trains
      • 20.4 Series hybrid electric drive trains (electrical coupling)
      • 20.5 Parallel hybrid electric drive trains (mechanical coupling)
      • 20.6 Series-parallel hybrid electric drive trains (electric and mechanical coupling) and plug-in hybrids
      • 20.7 Control and performance
      • 20.8 Future trends
    • Chapter 21: Pure electric vehicles
      • Abstract:
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 System configurations
      • 21.3 Electric propulsion
      • 21.4 Energy storage and management
      • 21.5 Charging infrastructure
      • 21.6 Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology
      • 21.7 Benefits and limitations of EVs
      • 21.8 Conclusions and future trends
      • 21.9 Acknowledgements
    • Chapter 22: Fuel-cell (hydrogen) electric hybrid vehicles
      • Abstract:
      • 22.1 Introduction
      • 22.2 Energy storage devices (ESDs) for the transport sector
      • 22.3 Batteries
      • 22.4 Hydrogen and fuel cells
      • 22.5 Electrochemical capacitors (ECs)
      • 22.6 Current status of low-carbon vehicle technologies
      • 22.7 Battery electric vehicles (BEVs)
      • 22.8 Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs)
      • 22.9 Technical prospects and barriers
      • 22.10 Improving the safety of hydrogen-powered vehicles
      • 22.11 Conclusions
      • 22.12 Acknowledgements
      • 22.14 Appendix: abbreviations
  • Index

Description

Most vehicles run on fossil fuels, and this presents a major emissions problem as demand for fuel continues to increase. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies gives an overview of key developments in advanced fuels and vehicle technologies to improve the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector.

Part I considers the role of alternative fuels such as electricity, alcohol, and hydrogen fuel cells, as well as advanced additives and oils, in environmentally sustainable transport. Part II explores methods of revising engine and vehicle design to improve environmental performance and fuel economy. It contains chapters on improvements in design, aerodynamics, combustion, and transmission. Finally, Part III outlines developments in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, and provides an overview of the benefits and limitations of these vehicles in terms of their environmental impact, safety, cost, and design practicalities.

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies is a standard reference for professionals, engineers, and researchers in the automotive sector, as well as vehicle manufacturers, fuel system developers, and academics with an interest in this field.

Key Features

  • Provides a broad-ranging review of recent research into advanced fuels and vehicle technologies that will be instrumental in improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector
  • Reviews the development of alternative fuels, more efficient engines, and powertrain technologies, as well as hybrid and electric vehicle technologies

Readership

Vehicle manufactures and fuel system developers; Automotive mechanical engineers


Details

No. of pages:
784
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857097422
Hardcover ISBN:
9780857095220

Ratings and Reviews


About the Editors

Richard Folkson Editor

Richard Folkson is Royal Academy of Engineering Visiting Professor for Innovation and Design and Deputy President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Richard Folkson Royal Academy of Engineering, UK