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This book describes alternative formulations and packaging techniques for the reduction or elimination of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) use as an aerosol propellant. Use of CFCs in specific categories of aerosols considered "nonessential" was banned by the U.S. in 1978. Recent renewed interest in further reducing worldwide production and consumption of CFCs, and other chemicals implicated in the depletion of the earth's stratospheric ozone layer, is responsible for this study, which covers currently exempted and excluded CFC aerosol applications and their alternatives.
Environmental engineers, students.
Part I. Background and Overview
- Introduction Historical Perspective Montreal Protocol Requirements Objectives and Organization of the Report
- CFC Aerosol Applications Exempted in the U.S. Rationale for Exempted Uses of CFC Aerosols Rationale for Excluded Uses of CFC Aerosols Summary
- Current U.S. Consumption of CFCs Discussion of the Data U.S. Marketers and Fillers of CFC Products
- Suggested Alternative Formulations for Exempted and Excluded CFC Aerosols Introduction Discussion of Alternative CFC Formulations Summary
- Procedures for and Costs of Substituting Alternative Formulations for CFC Aerosols Introduction Cost of Converting Filling Lines Methods and Costs for Developing Alternative Formulations for CFC Aerosols Excluded Products Procedures for Changing from CFC to Alternative Formulations Summary
Aerosol Uses for Which CFCs are Difficult to Eliminate (and Possible Interim Reformulations)
Potential for Reduction of CFC Use in Exempted and Excluded Aerosols
Near-Term CFC Reductions
Longer-Range CFC Reductions
Appendix A: Additional Information on MDIDs
Appendix B: DOT Regulations for Compressed Gases
Appendix C: Metric (SI) Conversion Factors
Part II. Alternative Formulations and Aerosol Dispensing Systems
Section 1. Alternative Aerosol Formulations
- Formulation Guidelines General Considerations
- Example Non-CFC Alternative Formulations Cosmetics, Toiletries and Personal Care Products Household Products Pesticide Aerosol Products Pharmaceutical Products Industrial Aerosol Products Section 2. Alternative Aerosol Dispensing Systems
- Introduction Definitions
- Description of Aerosol Packaging Alternatives Bag-in-Can Types Piston Cans Independent Bag-in-Can Systems Pump Sprays - Aspirator Types Pump-Sprays - Standard Types Dispensing Closures Pressurizing Dispensers Miscellaneous Aerosol Alternatives
- Summary Appendix A: Metric (SI) Conversion Factors
- No. of pages:
- © William Andrew 1990
- 31st December 1990
- William Andrew
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN: