# Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

## 1st Edition

**Editors:**K. Siegbahn

**eBook ISBN:**9780444596994

**Imprint:**North Holland

**Published Date:**1st January 1979

## Description

Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Volume 1 offers a comprehensive account of radioactivity and related low-energy phenomena. It summarizes progress in the field of alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, including the discovery of the non-conservation of parity, as well as new experimental methods that elucidate the processes of weak interactions in general and beta-decay in particular. Comprised of 14 chapters, the book presents experimental methods and theoretical discussions and calculations to maintain the link between experiment and theory. It begins with a discussion of the interaction of electrons and alpha particles with matter. The book explains the elastic scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei and the interaction between gamma-radiation and matter. It then introduces topic on beta-ray spectrometer theory and design and crystal diffraction spectroscopy of nuclear gamma rays. Moreover, the book discusses the applications of the scintillation counter; proportional counting in gases; and the general processes and procedures used in determining disintegration schemes through a study of the beta- and gamma-rays emitted. In addition, it covers the nuclear shell model; collective nuclear motion and the unified model; and alpha-decay conservation laws. The emissions of gamma-radiation during charged particle bombardment and from fission fragments, as well as the neutron-capture radiation spectroscopy, are also explained. Experimentalists will find this book extremely useful.

## Table of Contents

Preface

Contents of Volumes 1 and 2

List of Contributors

Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Introduction

Chapter I Interaction of Electrons and α-Particles with Matter

Interaction of Electrons

1. Elastic scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei

2. Energy loss

Interaction of α-Particles

3. Energy loss

4. Elastic scattering

Chapter II Interaction of γ-Radiation with Matter

1. Introduction

2. Photoelectric effect

3. Scattering by electrons

4. Pair production

5. Nuclear interactions and Delbrück scattering

6. Total attenuation coefficients

7. Absorption methods

Chapter III Beta-Ray Spectrometer Theory and Design. Magnetic Alpha-Ray Spectroscopy. High Resolution Spectroscopy

1. Introduction. General discussion of spectrometers

2. Some basic relations in β-spectroscopy

3. Nomenclature

4. The semicircular spectrometer

5. The double focussing spectrometer

6. Sector field spectrometers

7. Some proposed high transmission instruments

8. Lens spectrometers

9. Magnetic α-ray spectroscopes

10. Electrostatic spectrometers

11. Precision spectroscopy

Chapter IV Crystal Diffraction Spectroscopy of Nuclear γ-Rays

1. Introduction

2. Theory of crystal diffraction spectrometers

3. Curved crystal spectrometers

4. A flat crystal spectrometer

Chapter V The Scintillation Method

1. The scintillation counter

2. Methods for charged particle spectrometry

3. Methods for γ-rays

4. Factors affecting resolution

5. Crystal preparation and mounting

6. Crystal efficiency and linearity

7. Coincidence spectrometry

Chapter VI Particular Detection Methods

(A) Proportional Counters and Pulse Ion Chambers

1. Introduction

2. Volts per ion pair, W

3. Statistical fluctuations in pulse size and resolution

4. Ion chambers for alpha-particle spectroscopy

5. Proportional-counter alpha-spectroscopy

6. Proportional counters for beta and gamma-ray spectroscopy

7. Low background counting

8. Carbon-14 age determinations

9. Other applications of proportional counters

10. High-pressure proportional counters

11. High-temperature counters

12. Απ counters for absolute activity measurements

13. Conclusion

(B) Semiconductor Particle Spectrometers

1. Introduction

2. Charge collection

3. Detector noise

4. Radiation damage

5. Electronics

6. Detectors types

7. Application to nuclear physics

Chapter VII Some Experimental Techniques

(A) Sample and Window Technique

1. Introduction

2. Thin foil and film technique

3. Estimation of foil thickness

4. Deposition technique

5. Window absorption correction

6. Acceleration of electrons

(B) Intensity Determination of Photographically Recorded Conversion Lines

(C) Multi-Channel Pulse-Amplitude Analyzers

1. Introduction

2. Multi-discriminator analyzers

3. Gray-wedge analyzers

4. Amplitude-time conversion

5. Computer storage techniques applied to analyzers

6. Description of a typical analyzer with magnetic-core storage

7. Multi-parameter analyzers

8. Multi-sealer applications of analyzers

(D) Measurement of Source Strength

1. Introduction

2. Direct counting methods

3. Coincidence counting

4. Choice of counting method

5. Indirect methods

Chapter VIII Procedures for the Investigation of Disintegration Schemes

(A) General Procedures

1. Introduction

2. The preparation of the source material

3. The calibration of instruments

4. The search for γ-rays and the measurement of their energy

5. The determination of the relative intensity of γ-rays

6. The measurement of the β-rays

7. The Fermi plot; end points and β-ray groups

8. Determination of comparative half-lives ft

9. Determination of internal conversion coefficients

10 . Examples of some disintegration schemes

(B) Scintillation Spectra Analysis

1. Introduction

2 . General considerations

3. Measurement of γ-ray scintillation spectra

4 . Determination of the response function

5. Analysis of a spectrum by the peeling method

6. Determination of energies and intensities

7. Special applications

8. Beta-rays

9. Computer analysis of scintillation spectra

(C) The Coincidence Method

1. Introduction

2 . Definitions

3. Principles; errors

4 . Hardware

5. A versatile coincidence circuit arrangement

6. Geometries in electron-γ-ray coincidences

7. Geometries in γ-γ coincidences

8 . Pile-up dangers

9 . Applications

Chapter IX The Shell Model

(A) Shell Closure and jj Coupling

1. Introduction

2 . Magic numbers, or shell numbers

3 . Level sequence in the shell model

4 . Remarks on spin-orbit coupling

5. Parity and orbital angular momentum

6. Nuclei with incompletely filled shells

7. Pairing energy

8. Level occupation scheme

9. Isomerism in nuclei of odd A

10. Beta-decay

11. Alpha-decay

12. Center of mass motion

(B) Intermediate Coupling

1. Modification of the independent-particle model

2. Intermediate coupling calculations

3. Rotational interpretation

4 . Other interaction calculations

Introduction to Chapter X Evolutionary Trends in Nuclear Spectroscopy

Chapter X Collective Nuclear Motion and the Unified Model

1. Introduction. General trends of nucleonic correlations

2. Polarization effects of particles outside of closed shells

3. Spherical nuclei

4. Nuclei with stable quadrupole deformations

5. Microscopic theory of collective motion and the theoretical estimates of the collective parameters

Acknowledgement

Chapter XI Alpha-Decay

1. Introduction

2. Alpha-decay conservation laws

3. Decay energies and spectra of α-emission

4. Treatment of α-decay data

5. Decay rates of spherical nuclei

6. Decay rate theory including non-central interactions

7. Decay rates of odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei

Chapter XII Gamma-Radiation from Charged Particle Bombardment; Coulomb Excitation

1. Introduction

2. Coulomb excitation

3. Gamma-radiation from nuclear reactions

4. Gamma-ray energy and intensity measurements

5. Particle-γ coincidences

6. Angular distributions and angular correlations

7. Gamma-ray lifetime measurements

Chapter XIII Neutron Capture Radiation Spectroscopy

1. Introduction

2. The neutron capture process

3. Experimental arrangements for thermal γ-ray spectra

4. Internal conversion and pair production

5. Coincidence techniques

6. Properties of levels

7. Decay scheme of the compound nucleus

General review

Addendum

Chapter XIV Gamma-Radiation from Fission

1. Introduction

2. Experiments and results

3. Interpretation

4. Discussion

Appendix 1 Gamma-Ray Attenuation Coefficients

Appendix 2 Electron Binding Energies and Kinetic Energy Versus Magnetic Rigidity

## Details

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © North Holland 1965

- Published:
- 1st January 1979

- Imprint:
- North Holland

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780444596994

## About the Editor

### K. Siegbahn

## Reviews

@qu:The first edition was very useful; the new one contains more information and is more up-to-date. Professor Kai Siegbahn has earned admiration by managing to obtain manuscripts from so many active physicists. @source: American Journal of Physics @qu:... the work has retained its general purpose and character, as well as its very high standard of excellence. In fact it can almost be described as an encyclopaedic treatise on nuclear physics. @source: Nuclear Physics @qu:... this work is a valuable contribution to nucleonic literature and is to be recommended as a useful refence book. @source: Nature