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Alcoholic Beverages - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857090515, 9780857095176

Alcoholic Beverages

1st Edition

Sensory Evaluation and Consumer Research

Editor: John Piggott
Paperback ISBN: 9780081016527
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090515
eBook ISBN: 9780857095176
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 24th November 2011
Page Count: 520
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition


Part I: Sensory evaluation: principles and application to alcoholic beverages

Chapter 1: Overview of sensory perception


1.1 Introduction

1.2 The common senses

1.3 Oro-sensory systems

1.4 Sense of smell

1.5 Integration of sensory information

1.6 Mechanisms of perception, cognition and emotion

1.7 Sensory perception, satiation and food reward

1.8 Sensory perception and learning of preferences

1.9 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 2: Sensory quality control and assurance of alcoholic beverages through sensory evaluation


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Sensory quality concerns and issues in the alcohol beverage industry

2.3 Similarities and differences in alcoholic beverages

2.4 Factors influencing the development of off-flavors and taints

2.5 The use of instrumental methods to aid sensory quality evaluations

2.6 Future trends in quality evaluations

2.7 Additional sources of information

2.8 Conclusions

Chapter 3: Principles of sensory shelf-life evaluation and its application to alcoholic beverages


3.1 Introduction: principles of sensory evaluation in shelf-life testing

3.2 General principles of shelf-life estimation

3.3 Microbial analysis

3.4 Sensory discrimination tests

3.5 Quantitative descriptive tests

3.6 Sensory term reduction

3.7 Sensory profile changes in alcoholic beverages

3.8 Consumer acceptability testing

3.9 Instrumental analysis

3.10 Accelerated storage tests

3.11 Future trends

Chapter 4: Sensory methods for product development and their application in the alcoholic beverage industry


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Perceptual maps

4.3 Temporal dominance of sensation (TDS)

4.4 Prediction of perceived astringency induced by phenolic compounds in alcoholic beverages

4.5 Future trends

Chapter 5: Gas chromatography-olfactometry of alcoholic beverages


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Principles of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O)

5.3 Applications of GC-O in the flavour analysis of alcoholic beverages

5.4 Conclusions

Part II: Fermented products

Chapter 6: Beer: production, sensory characteristics and sensory analysis


6.1 Introduction

6.2 The origins of beer flavour

6.3 Off-flavours and their origin

6.4 Sensory analysis practice in the brewing industry

6.5 Future trends

Chapter 7: Fortified wines: styles, production and flavour chemistry


7.1 Introduction to fortified wines

7.2 Comparison of styles and types of fortified wines and their production methods

7.3 Flavour chemistry and sensory properties

7.4 Legal aspects and health considerations

7.5 Future trends

Chapter 8: Sake: quality characteristics, flavour chemistry and sensory analysis


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Quality of sake

8.3 Flavour and aroma of sake

8.4 Sensory evaluation method

8.5 Future trends

8.6 Sources of further information

8.7 Acknowledgement

Chapter 9: Table wines: sensory characteristics and sensory analysis


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Categories of table wines

9.3 Flavor chemistry and sensory aspects

9.4 Sensory analysis applied to table wines

9.5 Future trends

Part III: Distilled products

Chapter 10: Anise spirits: types, sensory properties and sensory analysis


10.1 Overview of anise spirits (pastis, ouzo, tsipouro)

10.2 History of anise spirits

10.3 Raw materials and production process

10.4 Description of major variants

10.5 Overview of flavour chemistry and sensory properties

10.6 Description of sensory analysis practice in the anise spirit industry

10.7 How consumer research is managed and executed

10.8 Future trends

Chapter 11: Cognac: production and aromatic characteristics


11.1 Raw materials, production process and major variants

11.2 Overview of flavour chemistry and sensory properties

11.3 Sensory analysis practice in the industry

11.4 Consumer research: creation of the Cognac aroma wheel

Chapter 12: Gin: production and sensory properties


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Gin production

12.3 Flavour chemistry

12.4 Sensory properties of gin and sensory analysis practice in the industry

12.5 Future trends

Chapter 13: Grape-based brandies: production, sensory properties and sensory evaluation


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Brandy production

13.3 Types of brandies

13.4 Understanding brandy flavour

13.5 Sensory evaluation of brandy

13.6 Brandy and consumer research

13.7 Future trends

Chapter 14: Grappa: production, sensory properties and market development


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Production process

14.3 Chemical composition and sensory properties

14.4 Grappa categories

14.5 Grappa tasting

14.6 Grappa and the consumer

14.7 New product development

14.8 Future trends

Chapter 15: Moutai (Maotai): production and sensory properties


15.1 Historical background

15.2 Ecological environment

15.3 Production of Kweichow Moutai

15.4 Sensory properties and flavor chemistry

15.5 Marketing

15.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 16: Pisco: production, flavor chemistry, sensory analysis and product development


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Pisco production

16.3 Pisco flavor chemistry

16.4 Main sensory properties of Pisco

16.5 Sensory analysis practice in the Pisco industry

16.6 Consumer research and product development in the Pisco industry

16.7 Future trends

16.8 Acknowledgments

Chapter 17: Sugar cane spirits: cachaça and rum production and sensory properties


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Raw materials

17.3 Fermentation

17.4 Distillation

17.5 Maturation

17.6 Cachaça and rum: similarities and differences

17.7 Sensory quality of cachaça and rum

17.8 The challenge of new markets

17.10 Acknowledgement

Chapter 18: Tequila and mezcal: sensory attributes and sensory evaluation


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Origin of the sensory attributes of tequila and mezcal

18.3 Sensory evaluation of tequila and mezcal from a research perspective

18.4 Application of sensory evaluation in industry

18.5 Sources of further information

18.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 19: Whiskies: composition, sensory properties and sensory analysis


19.1 Introduction

19.2 The influence of raw materials and production processes on sensory character

19.3 Whisky composition and sensory properties

19.4 Sensory analysis in the whisky industry

19.5 Future trends

Part IV: Consumer research methods: principles and application to alcoholic beverages

Chapter 20: Consumer research in the wine industry: new applications of conjoint measurement


20.1 Background: understanding the mindset of the consumer

20.2 Experiments and statistical tools

20.3 Conjoint measurement (CM): experiments by mixing together ideas

20.4 Applying CM to wine: traditional approaches

20.5 Understanding white wine using experimental design of ideas

20.6 The case of red wine

20.7 Next generation thinking: price and emotion/feeling and its application to dessert wine

20.8 Concluding remarks

Chapter 21: Preference mapping: principles and potential applications to alcoholic beverages


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Conducting central location trials (CLTs)

21.3 Analyses

21.4 Recent developments in preference mapping

21.6 Acknowledgement



Sensory evaluation methods are extensively used in the wine, beer and distilled spirits industries for product development and quality control, while consumer research methods also offer useful insights as the product is being developed. This book introduces sensory evaluation and consumer research methods and provides a detailed analysis of their applications to a variety of different alcoholic beverages.

Chapters in part one look at the principles of sensory evaluation and how these can be applied to alcoholic beverages, covering topics such as shelf life evaluation and gas chromatography – olfactometry. Part two concentrates on fermented beverages such as beer and wine, while distilled products including brandies, whiskies and many others are discussed in part three. Finally, part four examines how consumer research methods can be employed in product development in the alcoholic beverage industry.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Alcoholic beverages is an invaluable reference for those in the brewing, winemaking and distilling industries responsible for product development and quality control, as well as for consultants in sensory and consumer science and academic researchers in the field.

Key Features

  • Comprehensively analyses the application of sensory evaluation and consumer research methods in the alcoholic beverage industry
  • Considers shelf life evaluation, product development and gas chromatography
  • Chapters examine beer, wine, and distilled products, and the application of consumer research in their production


Those in brewing/winemaking/distilling industries responsible for product development and quality control; Consultants in sensory and consumer science; Researchers in academia working on sensory and consumer science


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2011
24th November 2011
Woodhead Publishing
Paperback ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


"A wonderful book … a must-read. Excellent index and references." --Food and Beverage Reporter

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

John Piggott