Alcohol, Drugs, Genes and the Clinical Laboratory - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128054550, 9780128093344

Alcohol, Drugs, Genes and the Clinical Laboratory

1st Edition

An Overview for Healthcare and Safety Professionals

Authors: Amitava Dasgupta
eBook ISBN: 9780128093344
Paperback ISBN: 9780128054550
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st October 2016
Page Count: 236
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Description

Alcohol, Drugs, Genes and the Clinical Laboratory provides an overview and quick reference to genetic relationships and clinical laboratory information related to the serious public health issue of alcohol and drug abuse. Written in a clear and concise manner, this book discusses the necessary information for health and safety professionals working in public health to learn about complex issues quickly to better help their patients, employees, and others affected by alcohol and drug abuse. Alcohol, Drugs, Genes and the Clinical Laboratory covers the important aspects of drugs and alcohol abuse including genetic aspects along with laboratory methods for analysis of alcohol and abused drugs with emphasis on false positive test results. The book is helpful to healthcare professionals, such as pathologists who oversee alcohol and drug testing, emergency room physicians, family practice physicians who are first healthcare professionals who identify patients susceptible to drug and alcohol abuse, and psychiatrists involved with drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs. It will also be useful to safety professionals who have to assess individuals for workplace responsibilities, ranging from police and recruitment to occupational safety and occupational medicine and public health officials.

Key Features

  • Features accessible language for healthcare and safety professionals who are not experts in laboratory procedures
  • Provides examples from clinical and everyday situations
  • Explains how to interpret laboratory results and the latest genetic factors regarding drug and alcohol abuse

Readership

Healthcare and related professionals including pathologists, emergency room physicians, family practice physicians, psychiatrists, alcohol and drug rehab staff. Public Health officials responsible for policy and clinical toxicologists needing quick reference. Safety professionals involved in workplace drug testing such as human resources managers, lawyers, and risk assessors will also find the book useful

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • 1. Alcohol a double-edged sword: Health benefits with moderate consumption but a health hazard with excess alcohol intake
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Guidelines for alcohol consumption
    • Alcohol use and abuse
    • Physiological effects of various blood alcohol levels
    • Benefits of drinking in moderation
    • Hazards of alcohol abuse
    • Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease
    • Alcohol consumption and stroke
    • Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes
    • Alcohol consumption and human brain
    • Alcohol consumption and cancer
    • Other benefits of moderate alcohol consumption
    • Other health hazards of heavy drinking
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • 2. Drugs of abuse: An overview
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Drugs of abuse: historical perspective
    • Abused drugs: regulatory issues
    • Abuse of stimulants
    • Abuse of opioids
    • Cannabinoid abuse
    • Abuse of anesthetics
    • Abuse of benzodiazepines
    • Abuse of barbiturates
    • Abuse of hallucinogens
    • Abuse of club drugs
    • Abuse of prescription drugs
    • Abuse of nonprescription drugs
    • Less commonly abused drugs
    • Abuse of magic mushroom and peyote cactus
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • 3. Designer drugs including bath salts and spices
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Bath salts
    • Other psychostimulant designer drugs
    • Abuse of synthetic cannabinoids (spices)
    • Opioid related designer drugs
    • Designer drugs which are phencyclidine analogs
    • Drugs related to GHB
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • 4. Combined alcohol and drug abuse: A potentially deadly mix
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Alcohol drug interaction
    • Interactions between abused drugs and alcohol
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • 5. Link between environmental factors, personality factors, and addiction
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Environmental factors and addiction
    • Stressful life events and susceptibility to alcohol/drug abuse
    • Personality factors and alcohol/drug use
    • Cooccurrence of substance use with other addictions
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • 6. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol metabolizing enzymes associated with protection from or increased risk of alcohol abuse
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Genes and alcohol abuse
    • Genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme
    • Gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme
    • Genetic polymorphisms that protect from alcohol abuse
    • Genetic polymorphisms that may increase risk of alcohol abuse
    • Polymorphism of CYP2E1 gene and alcoholism
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • 7. Pharmacogenomics of abused drugs
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Enzymes responsible for drug metabolism
    • CYP family of enzymes
    • Pharmacogenomics of methamphetamine and related drugs
    • Bupropion and CYP2B6 polymorphism
    • Cocaine and butylcholinesterase polymorphism
    • Pharmacogenomics of opioids
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • 8. Association between polymorphisms in genes encoding various receptors, transporters, and enzymes and alcohol/drug addiction
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Heredity linked to alcohol/drug abuse
    • Overview of neurotransmitter systems with relation to alcohol and abused drugs
    • Polymorphisms of genes in neurotransmitter systems and addiction
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • 9. Methods of alcohol measurement
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Alcohol measurement in blood
    • Breath alcohol measurement
    • Urine alcohol determination
    • Saliva alcohol determination
    • Transdermal alcohol sensors
    • Can alcohol be produced endogenously?
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • 10. Laboratory methods for measuring drugs of abuse in urine
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Medical versus legal drug testing
    • Commonly tested drugs
    • Cut-off concentrations and detection window of drugs in urine
    • Methodologies for drug testing
    • Analysis of amphetamine class
    • Analysis of cocaine as benzoylecgonine
    • Analysis of opioids
    • Analysis of marijuana
    • Analysis of phencyclidine
    • Analysis of benzodiazepines
    • Analysis of barbiturates
    • Issues with urine adulteration
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • 11. Analysis of drugs of abuse in serum, hair, oral fluid, sweat, and meconium
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Serum/whole blood as specimen for drug testing
    • Hair as specimen for drug testing
    • Oral fluid as specimen for drug testing
    • Sweat as specimen for drug testing
    • Meconium as specimen for drug testing
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
236
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128093344
Paperback ISBN:
9780128054550

About the Author

Amitava Dasgupta

Amitava Dasgupta

Amitava Dasgupta received his PhD degree in Chemistry from Stanford University and his fellowship training in Clinical Chemistry from the Laboratory Medicine Department of the University of Washington School of Medicine at Seattle. He is a tenured Full Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center located at the Texas Medical Center at Houston. Dr. Dasgupta has published 210 scientific papers, written many invited review articles, and has edited, co-edited or written 15 books. He is on the Editorial Board of five major medical journals including American Journal of Clinical Pathology, Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Clinica Chimica Acta and Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas, McGovern Medical School, , Houston, TX, USA